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The Cape Fear Mercury
Wednesday, September 22, 1773; Number 190

The Confession of Spencer Dew, lately Executed at Duplin, taken by Felix Kenan, Esq.; Sheriff of said County, and signed by the said Spencer Dew, at the Gallows, in presence of a large concourse of people. It is published at the request of Mr Kenan from the original now in his hands.
I am about thirty-eight years of age, I was born in North-Hampton County in this Province of honest Parents. I was first induced to Steal Cattle and Horses by George Dukes then joined in partnership with Tom and Michael Rogers, and we Stole six Horses, and Passed? To the amount of One Thousand Pounds Conterfeit Money, but the greatest part thereof was Virginia Currency, which the said Tom and Michael made themselves.
In the Year 1771, I joined in partnership with Ephraim and George Lane; and George Lane and myself Stole two Horses and a Mare, and Ephraim Lane bore our expences whilst we were in search of the said Horses, and he drew one third of the money we got for them. Then Ephraim Lane and myself Stole eight head of fat Hogs, and he said he had taken more before, and that they were the property of John Turner. After this, Thomas Hunter and myself broke open a House of Joseph Price on Roanok Rive, and took a finall? Trunk with some money in it, and a large Shot Gun.
In the Year 1772, I joined with William and Pearson Lane, and we Stole six Horses and two Mares; we also unlatched the Door of Sarah Hunter, went into the House, and lighted a candle, took a Key out of a Boy's pocket, unlocked the Store door, and went in, and took about Four Pounds in Proclamation Money, and about Fifty Pounds in Goods. I was also in partnership with Thomas Ormond, and we Stole three Horses and a Mare, and about seventeen or eighteen Pounds Virginia Money from John Hill in Craven County, in South Carolina. Then with Ludowick Outlaw we passed about Four Hundred Pounds Conterfeit Proclamation Money that one Captain Johnston made; he lives on Thomsons Creek in South Carolina; afterwards Ormond, Joseph Clark, William Johnston and myself, broke open the Store of Thomas Collins on Broad River; and Stole about One Hundred and Fifty Pounds Virginia Money, and Twenty Pair Of Blankets. Then with Drury Goodwin, and Samuel Lane, we passed about Three Hundred Pounds Conterfeit Gold, Silver, and Virginia Money, John Nicholas Smith and myself Stole from John McIntosh, a Horse and a Mare, and about Forty Shillings Cash; and from William White in South Carolina about Thirteen Pounds Virginia Money. About the first of March last we were all apprehended in Hillsborough, and Samuel Lane made his escape; but having had notice given us, we hid our Counterfeit Money under the head of a bed, and when we were searched, finding none about us, we were Discharged. I was in combination with James Davis, P? in NewBern, and received him Three Hundred Pounds Proc. Which I saw him make to Pass, and I was to give him one half of what I got for it; and in 1773, he also gave me Eight Hundred Pounds more of his own make on the same terms, which I left in the possession of William Marsault, I have seen Ja-s C---r, receive from said Davis, a 1/2? The full amount of Two Thousand Pounds Conterfeit, to Pass, and I verily do believe that John & George Kennedy, are in Confederacy with said Davis. William Marsault and myself Stole from Joseph Holt, nine barrels of Pitch; three barrels of Tar from Mr Cornell, and two barrels from Mrs Smith. In January or February, 1772; Robert McLean and myself Stole from Mr Cornell, two barrels of Pork out of a Boat that came down Neuse River, and attempted to Steal another, but were discovered, I knocked down a man, and we both made out escape. About a Month ago William Stringer got from James Davis One Hundred and Fifty Pounds Conterfeit to Pass on the same terms that I had mine.
Since I broke custody after my Condemnation, I broke open Thomas Smith's House, on Neuse River in Dobbs County, and stole a Surtout Coat, a Beaver Hat, a pair of Leather Breeches, ------ Jacket, a pair of thread Stockings, a Knife, ---------- Chissel, --- --- Powder, ------- ---- Meat and  Shoulder of Pork. William Marsault and myself Stole from Samuel Parsons, thirty eight pound of Bacon; and from Samuel Cornell, two barrels of Corn. We made an attempt to break open John Green's Store, but were prevented by feirce door? It has been maliciously reported, and industriously spread about that Felix Kenan, Esq. High Sheriff of Duplin County received a Bribe from me, when I was left in his Custody, to favour my Escape. I now Declare before God and the World, as I hope for Salvation, that neither he the said Felix Kenan, nor any other Person, ever received any Bribe or Reward from me for that Purpose; nor was the said Felix Kenan privy to the means byt which I made my Escape. Signed: Spencer (X) Dew
Spencer Dew was Condemned last June, and Executed the sd Of August following.

The Cape Fear Mercury
Wednesday, September 22, 1773; Number 190.

Just Imported in the Ship Spencer, Captain M'Leod from London. A large and compleat assortment of European and East India goods suitable for the season, which will be sold on the most reasonable terms by Southerland and Cruden in Wilmington and John Cruden and Co. at Cross-Creek.
September 21, 1773.

The Partnership of Cobham and Tucker will be dissolved the first Day of October next. They request all persons who are indebted to them to make Payment; and those to whom the Company is indebted to send in their Accompts immediately to either of Partners. The preceeding Requests they hope will be complied with, their affairs rendering a settlement absolutely necessary.
Sept. 22.

Any Person having a plantation to dispose from 500 to 1000 acres of land fit for rice, indigo or wheat may hear of a purchaser by sending a particular description and the price that will be asked therefor to
Adam Boyd

Taken up by the subscriber in New Hanover County on the North East of Cape Fear river in North Carolina, a new negro man, calls himself Abraham, he is about 5 feet 7 inches high, between 25 and 30 years of age, with his upper teeth fil'd; had on a negro-cloth jacket and trousers, speaks but very little English. The owner is desired to come and prove his property with paying all charges to
John Buford
, Sept. 1, 1773.

Notice is hereby given, that a Court of Chancery will be held at Newbern on Thursday the Fourteenth Day of October next.
By Order, J Bigoleston, RCC
Sept 15th, 1773.

Whereas Mr James Erwin has by an advertisement of the 10th current, forbid any person from purchasing a tract of land upon the Sound, lately advertised for sale by the subscriber, upon a pretence of his having a right therto; and wheras the subscribe is fully satisfied of the validity of his right to them, he gives this public notice, that he will warrant the titles to be good, to any person that is inclinable to purchase them. Jo. Murray.

To be Sold, A quantity of the very best negro cloth, ruggs, blankets, and a variety of other articles lately imported at advance two & half for one from the sterling invoice, also a few casks of madeira wine at 1 sl.? per cask, bohea Tea 6s 8 d per lb.; muscovado sugar, coffee and jamaica spirits----- Tar, turpentine or lumber will be taken in payment by
J. Burgwin

Taken up by the subscriber, a bay Mare, about 13 hands high, and about 7 years old, branded on the mounting shoulder and thigh thus S. The owner is desired to apply to
John Bell

As several Persons in this Town make a practice to purchase from my Negroes whatever they pillage from my House in town or Plantation below, and I have certain information of rum having been sold them, and am no stranger to those who are concerned; I give this notice that I will for the future prosecute any person of offending against the Laws of Province with the utmost rigour.
William Hooper

Four Pound Reward
Ran Away, from the Subscriber, an Irish Servant Man, named Patrick Murphey, of the Age of 24 Years, about five Feet, ten Inches High, and able bodied Man, dark Hair inclining to curl; talks upon the Brogue; had one when he went away a green Sailor Jacket, A Shirt and -----------------------, also white thread Stockings, a pair of broad rim'd Pewter Buckles with Brass --------- tongues, he had a coarle? Small Hatt, a blew and white Check Hand-Kerchief marked in one corner.
N. B. Whoever takes up and Secures the said Servant so that his Master may have him again, shall receive the above Reward, and all Reasonable Charges Paid by James Blyth.
N. B. Said Patrick Murphy is a Sawyer by Trade. Wilmington, August 3, 1773. (Thurs.)

To be Sold and entered upon immediately.
That convenient and valuable lot and tar-house at the lower end of Wilmington formerly called Purviance's wharf and tar-house, but now the property of John Edwards Esq. Of South Carolina, whoever is inclinable to purchase will know the terms by applying to
John Burgwin. August 22nd, 1773.

Three Pounds Reward
Run away from Subscriber September 8th, 1773, an Indented Servent Girl named Mary Kelly lately from Ireland, but says she has lived 14 years in London, is about 18 or 20 years of age, five feet six or eight inches high, stoops in her walking, fair complection and redish hair, had on when she went away a little round man's hat,  green petticoat and black tuff? Shoes; took with her, two striped blew and white collor and calico with red flowers, ---- gowns, and 6 yard; of dark coloured calico not made up. Whoever takes up the said run away servant, and secures her in any of his Majesty's Goals so that she may be had again, shall be entitled to the above reward, and if brought home all resonable charges paid by me.
George Barnes, at the firm of Harp & Crown in Wilmington
September 13, 1773.

To Be Sold At Public Sale, On Monday the 6th of December next, at the Plantation of the late Mr Henry Hyrne, Deceased. About 18 Negroes, most of them very valuable among which are Coopers, Sawyers, several strong, field negro men and a cook; also a stock of about 80 head of fine large cattle, about 15 of which are fat beeves; a parcel of work horses and oxen, a good waggon, carts, plows and other plantation utensils, a flock of near 40 sheep and about as many hogs, also good beds, beding, chairs, tables and a variety of other valuable household furniture; the terms of the sale will be six months credit for all sums exceeding 5l, on giving judgement bonds upon interest from the date with approved security to Frederick Jones, executor, and for all sums under the above sum of 5l. ready money; should it prove bad weather on the day appointed for the sale, it will begin the first fair day after, and continue till all are sold. All persons who have any; demands against the said estate are desired to bring in their accounts properly attested; also those indebted thereto are required to make immediate payment. The house (which is large and commodious having four good rooms on a floor, with four dry cellars) and plantation are to be rented on reasonable terms & entered on Immediately after the sale, on which are all convenience --- and other outhouses, a large parcel of cleared land under good fences and several fields in good order both for rice & corn. There is also another plantation joining the above to be rented, whereon is a parcel of cleared land chiefly fenced in, the situation and quality of the aforesaid lands are to well known, it will be needless to mention the many advantages arising from farming & making every sort of grain on them, for terms with respect to renting the aforesaid house and plantations apply to
Frederick Jones, Executor.
September 8, 1773.

Wheras my Office of Sheriff for New Hanover County will expire next month, and as there is an immediate necessity for collecting the different taxes, to as to enable me to exonerate myself and my securities before the sitting of the General Assembly, and it being inconvenient for me at present to attend for the purpose: This is to give notice that Mr John James of the Welch Tract is properly authorized to collect such taxes as are due to me. And I give this further notice, that all persons who are indebted to me for taxes during my former shrievalty for the years 1763, 1764, and 1765, will be called upon after the 10th day of September next, and those who neglect or refuse to pay, will be distrained? Upon without respect of persons.
Arthur Benning, Wilmington, August 25.

Windham Herald; August 1, 1805
Newbern, July 10
A Duel - Has been fought on the boundaries of the State, between Gen. Smith and Capt Moore, both of Wilmington. Seconds, Lt. Smith, and Major Moore Surgeon, Dr. Scott. It was agreed that the distance at first should be ten steps, to advance a step at each fire; and neither to quit the field until one of them was seriously wounded. At the second fire, Gen. S. was wounded below the right breast, fell, and was carried in a boat round to Wilmington. He arrived in town late in the evening, a report of his death having preceded him. The inhabitants crowded the wharves with great joy to hear of his approach alive and escorted him to the house with lighted torches. The ball has not been extracted - hopes are however entertained of his recovery.

The Star - July 31, 1820
Raleigh, NC - July 21
The notorious Anthony Metcalf is now confined in Person county jail. It is hoped some of the friends of the numerous women he had married, (to say nothing of his other offences,) will come forward and prosecute him with effect.
As far as the history of his life is known, he was raised in Portsmouth, Va. When quite young he was sentenced to 3 years imprisonment in the penitentary for stealing a pocket book; married a woman in Hertford, one in Wilmington, one in Lincoln, another in Pitt, all in this state, and how many others are not known but if his own confession (made when confined in our jail) is to be believed, he had married 14 wives in 1818, and we have heard of one since. His age does not exceed 30 or 35.

North Carolina Journal; August 23, 1826
New Hanover Election Results -- Thos. Devane, Senate -- William Watts Jones and John Kerr, Commons Town of Wilmington -- Joseph A Hill

North Carolina Argus; November 22, 1856
Jones: A Probable Murder
An old man named Jones, lately living at Strickland's Depot, Duplin County, died one or two evenings since in a house in the lower part of this town, as we are informed, and his remains were placed in a coffin and carried to his place of residence above, where the coffin was opened and the appearance of the corpse was such as to justify the belief that the deceased had come to his death by violence, whereupon the body was brought back to this place, and an inquest will be held over it today. Wilmington Herald

February 23, 1856; North Carolina Argus
Moore's Creek Bridge
A meeting of citizens of Wilmington was held Friday last to make further arrangements for celebrating the Anniversary of the Battle of Moore's Creek Bridge, on the 27th inst. A committee of 20 gentlemen was appointed, and Messrs G J McRae and E W Hall requested to address the people on the occasion. After which we find: On motion of Col John McRae, the name of James Banks, Esq of Cumberland County, was added to the list of orators invited to participate in the celebration and address the assemblage on that occasion. Col McRae's motion was warmly and unanimously approved.

Saturday October 24, 1857; North Carolina Argus
We regret to record a distressing accident which occurred to Mr George Southall of this town (Wilmington). Mr Southall had prepared a small vial of a chemical composition of which nitric acid was the principal ingredient, and while conversing with a friend, the vial exploded, scattering the corrosive fluid into the face of Mr Southall, a portion entering one of his eyes, instantly depriving it of sight. This painful accident should be a warning to persons handling chemicals. Wilmington Herald

Saturday, August 29, 1857; North Carolina Argus - August 24, 1857
Destructive Fire in Wilmington
A very destructive fire occurred in Wilmington, on the morning of Monday last. The fire, it is supposed, was the work of an incendiary. The guilty party or parties, have not yet been arrested. Some of the merchants of the town have sustained considerable losses. We give belowe the particulars which we clip from the Wilmington Herald of the 24th:
"The most destructive fire that has occurred in our town for several years, took place this morning at an early hour. It originated at about two o'clock in a warehouse on the wharf in the company of Captain Owen Burns, in the rear of a clothing store occupied by Messrs A. Kaufman & Co. These buildings were soon consumed. They belonged to O G Parksy, Esq. and were uninsured. Kaufman & Co. say that their loss is from $2,500 to $3,400 and do not know whether they are insured or not.
"The fire next extended to the wooden building, the property of Mrs Noyes occupied by Messrs Walker & Stevenson, as an office, and by W T Huggins as a hay store. The loss of Messrs Walker & Stevenson is trifling; that of Mr Huggins is between $400 and $500, on which there is no insurance.
"The clothing store of Messrs J & H Samson, owned by Mrs Noyes, was next consumed and also a store occupied by them, the property of O G Parskey, on the wharf. The Messrs Samson say that their stock was heavy, and that they had full insurance. The amount we did not discover. Mr Parsley was uninsured.
"The stores on the wharf, owner by Mr Parskey and Mrs Noyes, occupied by Mr J G Bauman were destroyed. Mr Bauman's loss was between $5,000 and $6,000, on which there is insurance to the amount of $2,500. Mr Parskey had no insurance.
"Even Bevan's store, owned by Mr O G Parsley, Mr Bevan's Loss, $1,200 to $1,500, no insurance. W M Lewis had some $200 worth of tools in the store of Mr Bevan, which were also destroyed. No insurance.
"The fire next attacked the brick store, and above, by Messrs E McPherson & Co. and O G Parkley & Co. offices. Capt Burns' loss is fully covered by insurance. The loss of the other occupants of the building is supposed trifling. No insurance on the house, which was the property of O G Parskey.
"A warehouse on the wharf, occupied by Messrs Russel & Bro. and owned by O G Parskey was consumed. There was a quantity of goods stored in the warehouse, and some days must elapse before the true loss can be ascertained"
"Some 600 BBLs. Rosin and about 90 casks Spirits Turpentine on the wharf, the property of George Harriss, was lost, partly by burning, partly by being rolled into the River. A portion of the Spirits has been recovered, and it is not yet known what will be the loss.
"Mr Daniel L Russel had some fine Rosin on the wharf, which was destroyed. Loss about $1,500, no insurance.
"Trifling damage was done to the building occupied by Messrs J J Lippitt and A B McDuffie & Co. These losses are covered by insurance.
"Messrs Alderson & Bizzle had to move their stock of goods and will lose considerable. There was considerable loss, no doubt, by persons removing their goods and furniture into the street.
"Mrs Noyes lost three wooden buildings, valued at about $2,500, on which there is $1,500 insurance. It is a heavy loss to her, for the rents of those buildings was her chief source of income.
"Mr Parskey, it will be observed, lost several buildings, on which there was no insurance. These buildings, with one exception, were of wood, and not of any great value, although they paid an annual rent of $1,750.
"There can be no doubt that the fire was the work of an incendiary, as cirmustances concerning which we shall not speak of at this time, go very far to strengthen this idea.
"We trust that a rigid examination may lead to the detection of the villian or villians who have thus applied the midnight torch."
The Herald of the 25th gives the following particulars:
"In the hurry, we omitted to state yesterday that the kitchen of Rock Spring Hotel, belong to Mr O G Parskey, had been consumed. No insurance. And that a wharf, the property of Mr F J Lord had been damaged. Loss near $1,500."
P. S. -- We learn from the Commercial of Thursday, that A. Kaufman was taken up on suspicion of having feloniously set fire to the premises consumed on the 24th. It is supposed that he had committed the act to secure himself the amount of the insurance on his goods.
An examination was held before Judge Vann, on Wednesday evening, and A. Kaufman held in $5,000 for his appearance at the next term of the Superior Court. In default of bail, he was committed to jail.

The Weekly Standard of Raleigh, North Carolina; July 3, 1861
Rev M B Grier of the Presbyterian Church at Wilmington, and Rev P A McMartin of the Presbyterian Church at Hillsboro' not sympathizing with the South, have left their charges and gone North.

The Standard of Raleigh, August 20, 1863
A Remarkable Negro
The "North Carolina Presbyterian" mentions the death of a very remarkable Negro, known as "Uncle Moreau" and belonging to Gen. Owen of Wilmington. He was, according to his own account, ninety-three years of age. We quote the following:
"He was born in Western Africa, upon the banks of the Senegal River. His name originally was 'Omeroh' which has gradually been changed into the French title he now bears. He belonged to the tribe of the Fulahs, but from which of the various nations inhabited by this people he came, it is difficult to ascertain. There is no doubt, however, that he is the most remarkable of his tribe ever brought to this country, and is now perhaps the only one of the nation living in the United States.
"One of the same was sent back to Africa as early as 1733 by Oglethorpe; another was ransomed and sent to Liberia in 1838; besides these not more than two Fulahs were known in 1855 to be in the limits of the Southern States.
"Uncle Moreau was brought to this country in 1807, just before the final abolition of the slave trade. He was landed at Charleston. Sometime after he reached this country he fell into the hands of a cruel master, from whom he escaped. After being arrested as a runaway and confined in jail in Fayetteville, he was at length purchased by Gen. Owen, to whom he belonged at the time of his death.
"When Uncle Moreau became the property of Gen. Owen he was a very devout Mohammedan, but he was baptised by the Rev Dr Snodgrass, then pastor of the Presbyterian Church in Fayetteville, and became a member of that Church. His membership was afterwards transferred to the 1st Church, Wilmington, of which he died a communicant.
"His piety was of the highest order, being characterized by a child-like trust in the Saviour that was perhaps never excelled. He spent several months of last year in Fayetteville, a refugee from his home, and during the time though exceedingly feeble in bodily health, he was rarely absent from the house of God during worship. Calling to see him on one occasion, we found him reading his Arabic Bible, which was his constant companion; and he gave us a specimen of his composition in Arabic, which though not equal to others we have seen written earlier in life, does credit to his penmanship in that ancient language.
"But the devout, humble Christian, reclaimed from the darkness of heathenism, has passed to the immediate presence of his Saviour. And in the judgment of those now enjoying 'this blessed privilege, who has undergone less change at their transition from earth to heaven than Uncle Moreau."

Wilmington Star, 16 June 1874
The roof of a dwelling house on Fourth, between Hanover and Brunswick streets, occupied by Mr Morton, of the firm of Wilder & Morton, caught fire yesterday afternoon, about 2 o'clock, but the flames were extinguished with but trifling damage.  The fire originated from a spark from the chimney. The alarm did not spread beyond the immediate neighborhood.

Brunswick Advertiser March 20, 1880; Volume 5, Number 37
Messrs Wilder & Co. are putting up substantial works in the upper part of town for their distillery etc which are quite an improvement on the ordinary works through the country. – These gentlemen are getting ready of business.

Brunswick Advertiser June 19, 1880;
Volume 5, Number 50
The distillery of J. Wilder & Co. in the upper portion of this city, was burned on Monday last. We have endeavored to find some one who could give us the origin of the fire, but so far have failed. The conflagration was fearful, the dense smoke arising from the flames casting a shadow for several blocks, giving a peculiarly weird look similar to that of an eclipse of the sun. The wind being due west, only the still and office, together with a small lot of naval stores, were burned. The buildings near the water were not injured. Two houses owned by Mrs B Golden, on an adjoining lot, were burned, being in close proximity to the office of Messrs Wilder & Co. which, by the way, was itself so near the still, and the fire spread so rapidly, that not even the books of the firm were saved. There was no insurance on any of the property, hence it is all total loss. But phoenix-like, the firm are rising out of the ashes and re-building at once. The smoke had hardly cleared away before the work of re-building began. We should estimate the entire loss of still and houses, naval stores, etc., at about $2,500. The sufferers have the sympathy of our whole people.

Brunswick Advertiser June 26, 1880;
Volume 5, Number 51
Messrs Wilder & Co. are re-building their distillery on the same spot. For the protection of the cooperage works of Messrs. Anderson & Couper, they will erect an iron wall, fifty feet long and thirty feet high, between the still and the cooperage.

Brunswick Advertiser July 10, 1880;
Volume 6 Number 1
Messrs J. Wilder & Co., began work again last Monday, having rebuilt their distillery over the ashes of the old one. We love to see such enterprise.

Brunswick Advertiser May 22, 1880
Stolen On Tuesday night last, a fine, dark, chestnut sorrel mare from the camps of Messrs J. Wilder & Co. at the six mile crossing. On the night following, a white man in Mr W’s employ disappeared also. The most natural conclusion is, that man and mare went the same road and traveled in company. Texas law is a good thing for the suppression of such tricks.

Brunswick Advertiser May 22, 1880
Caught: W T Gray, the chap above alluded to, was caught Thursday morning at Barrington Ferry. He missed his way during the night, and thus allowed his pursuers to reach the river ahead of him. In his possession was found not only the mare, but also a nice coat and pair of spectacles stolen by him from Mr D Davidson. He is now in the “Hotel de Moore,” peeping though the bars, looking forward, no doubt, to the time when he will be permitted to wear, not Mr Davidson’s new “Sunday-go-to-meeting” coat, but one patterned after the skin of a zebra.

Brunswick Advertiser November 6, 1880;
Volume 6, Number 18
Wilmington Review, October 22nd
Dr Thos F Wood, of this city, sometime since collated a number of facts relative to the production of turpentine, and its manufactured results, such as spirits, rosin and oil, in response to some enquiries submitted to him by Prof. Fluckiger, for insertion in the Pharmacographia. Dr. Wood’s article has been furnished to New Remedies a monthly medical trade journal published in New York city, in the October number in which it appears.  it contains matter which will interest all of our readers, and we reproduce it here. In reading the article, it must be understood that it is a compilation of replies to interrogatories, the latter being omitted:
Of the turpentine collected in this district, very little is shipped north. Most all of it is distilled upon the water courses near the pine forests. The small quantities of crude turpentine now sent north are used in making printers’ ink.
Turpentine is distilled in copper stills now. Formerly iron stills were used. Then the resulting oil was red. When the first copper still was used in Wilmington, the clear, uncolored oil shipped north was rejected, because it was not considered genuine “spirits.”
All crude turpentine is distilled with water. The part which water plays in the process will be seen hereafter. The present distinctions as to the grades of rosin are somewhat different from yellow and transparent. It is not the presence of water which makes rosin yellow.  If water gets into rosin, which it does sometimes by accident, the rosin becomes opaque.  All the better grades of rosin are yellow or amber color, more correctly; but the term “yellow rosin” is not used here commercially or otherwise. The grade of the rosin depends, first upon the quality of the turpentine, and, second, upon the skill in distilling. “Virgin turpentine,” the first exulation from a newly clipped tree, if skilfully distilled, will yield “window-glass rosin,” of which there are two or three grades. If, by any means, water gets into prime rosin, it becomes opaque.  This accidental addition of water must take place after the rosin has been drawn off from the still.
Yellow dip” turpentine, which is the running of the second and subsequent years, yields the medium grades of rosin, while the “scrapings,” the inspissated gum from the tree facings, yields an inferior rosin, from very dark to almost black.  The black rosin is not due to burning in the still, as has been stated.
Anhydrous rosin is the greater part of the stock produced; the opaque rosins, being accidental, are limited.
The following description of the process of distillation may explain further:
A fifteen barrel copper still (barrel weighing 220 pounds each) is charged early in the morning.—Heat is applied until the mass attains a uniform temperature of from 212 to 316 degrees F.  This is continued until the accidental water that is, the water contained in the crude turpentine as it comes from the forest, has been driven off.
The first product distilled over is pyroligneous acid, formic acid, ether and methylic alcohol, with water.  This is known as low wine.
All the accidental water having been distilled off, a small stream of cold water is now let in so that the heat is kept at or below 316 degrees F., the boiling point of oil of turpentine.  The oil of turpentine and water now come over, and the mixture is caught in a wooden tub.
The distillate is caught from the still, and separates into water and oil. There is an overflow spout, which discharges into a tub. The water is kept low enough in the lower part of the tub to prevent its overflowing through the cock into the receptacle. From this receptacle it is put into oak casks, well made with iron hoops, and securely glued inside.
The distillers test the quality of the flow from time to time in a proof glass.  The distillation is continued until the proportion of fluid coming over is nine of water to one of oil of turpentine.  At this stage the heat is withdrawn, the still-cap is taken off, and the hot rosin which remains in a fluid state in the still, is drawn off by a valvular cock at the side of the still near the bottom.
This rosin passes through a strainer, before it reaches the vat, to rid it of foreign substances, such as straw, pine cones, chips, etc.—From the vat it is bailed by wooden buckets, fixed on a long handle, into the barrels. Rosin is graded by standard samples fixed upon by the “Produce Exchange.”
The yield of oil of turpentine from “virgin drip” is about six gallons to barrel. The yield of oil of turpentine from “yellow dip” is about four gallons to barrel. The yield of oil of turpentine from “scrapings” is about two gallons to barrel.
Other products now attract our attention, viz: the distillation of rosin oil.
The rosin oil of commerce is produced in the following way: Rosin is introduced into an iron still, the lower grades being used for this purpose, and heat is applied until the temperature reaches from 316 to 320 degrees F. Water and pyroligeneous and naptha. The heat is then raised to near the red heat of iron, when the rosin boils, and water and oil of rosin distil over together. This is crude rosin-oil.  It is heavy, nearly opaque, whitish viscid fluid, opalescent on the surface.
This crude rosin oil is rectified by distillation, and the resulting oil is transparent, with a decidedly bluish cast by reflected light.  It is deeply opalescent, more so than petroleum oil. The residuum left in the still is a black mass with a shining fracture, giving the hues of crystal analine. Other products still remain to be spoken of, viz: naptha and oil of tar.
Tar, when distilled, yields pyroligneous acid, water, naptha or spirits of tar. The naptha, when purified by a second distillation, is clear and of a very pleasant terebinthinate odor. The oil of tar comes over in the latter part of the process and a black residuum remains in the still resembling pitch. All but the last named of these articles have a commercial value.
Tar is distilled in iron retorts, just as rosin is. There are many complex bodies which have come to the attention of the manufacturers during their operations. Some of them have been very intelligently worked out and identified by Mr William A. Martin, the chemist of the works we have visited. Some remain to be investigated. Terebinthine products have always been exceedingly interesting chemically, and just now we are moving towards practical commercial results. I am expecting to announce, at no distant day, that we have made a sure step in the right direction.

Brunswick Advertiser & Appeal May 21, 1881;
Volume VI Number 46
GLYNN COUNTY, Its Railroad Facilities-Town-Soil-Climate-Industries and Inhabitants. Cary W. Styles, is Waycross Reporter.
Mr J. Wilder is another enterprising citizen, and is offering advantageous inducements to the turpentine interests of the country. He has a large distillery in the city, and in addition to the manufacture of his own crude turpentine, obtained from his extensive farm, six miles up the road, he proposes to purchase the crude from the country and distill it here.  He will pay the highest cash prices paid in any market on the Atlantic coast, and will protect his customers against the frauds so common in the weight of barrels. Mr Wilder is well known as a gentleman of the highest integrity, and one who deals fairly and liberally. He is also agent for the Palmer barrel, which is made in New York out of Western wood, and sold here at a lower price than a Georgian with a similar barrel made out of Georgia wood.
Mr J. Wilder has a farm of 8,000 acres at the six mile crossing of the B. & A. and M. & B. railroads. This farm affords 27 crops, 270,000 boxes, works 45 hands and yields 200 barrels of crude turpentine to the crop. Mr Wilder paid one dollar per acre for the lands he purchased, and that is about the price of lands in the vicinity. His neighbors get turpentine, and obtain good prices from him at his still in Brunswick.

The Morning Star  Wilmington, NC Tuesday, May 15, 1883;
Volume XXX Number 46
The schooner Katie Edwards, a regular visitor at this port, being on the line between this city and Onslow county, was sunk in Bear Inlet, at Brown Sound, between Swansboro and New River, on Wednesday night last. She was loaded with turpentine. No further particulars have thus far been received, but it is thought the cargo will probably be saved.  The schooner Ray, Capt Dennis, has gone to the relief of the unfortunate vessel. The schooner Katie
Edwards is the property of Messrs. Hall & Pearsall, of this city.

The Weekly Star Wilmington, NC May 30, 1884;  Volume XV Number 34
We learn through a private telegram received by Mr Geo R Ward, of this city from his cousin, Dr E W Ward, of New River, Onslow county, yesterday, that Mr A C Huggins’ examination before a coroner’s jury in relation to the killing of Dr Charles Lesesne, on Tuesday last, resulted in his acquittal. Mr Huggins’ children are still here.

Observer And Gazette Fayetteville, NC February 25, 1886
The freight steamer River Queen, which ran between Wilmington and Fayetteville, and from which Capt A. H. Worth had only a few days since retired as commander, was burned at her wharf in Wilmington during the big fire of Sunday last. The River Queen was owned by Mr Bagley, and was partially insured.

Fayetteville Observer & Gazette January 28, 1886
We learn that Capt Jeff D Robeson, a popular young river captain, is to take command of the steamer Bladen, Capt T J Green designing to retire from the boating business and devote himself to other pursuits. Whatever field Capt Green may choose for his labors, he will doubtless find as many friends as he has on the Cape Fear, where he has been known and esteemed for so many years.

The Morning Star Wilmington, NC February 23, 1886;
Volume XXXVII Number 129
A Large Portion of the Business Part of the City Laid in Ruins – Two Steamers and a Schooner Burned – Railroad Freight Depots in Ruins – Many Valuable Residences Swept Away – Scenes and Incidents of the Great Fire. The city was visited Sunday afternoon last by the most disastrous conflagration, probably, ever known in its history. It has inflicted immense loss upon business men and others, and laid waste large portions of its busiest and most thickly settled thoroughfares. It is a calamity from which we fear our fair city will be long in recovering; but it should be consolation to know that beyond the distress and suffering that must necessarily ensure to many, there has been no loss of life and no serious personal injury to any one. The fire began about 2 o’clock on the steamer Bladen which had just arrived from Fayetteville, having on board a cargo of cotton and naval stores.  The boat was within a hundred and fifty yards of the foot of Chesnut street when the fire was first discovered in bales of cotton on the lower deck near the boiler.  The steamer was at once headed for the shore, but before she
reached the nearest wharf – that of the New York (Clyde) Steamship company – the flames had enveloped the whole forward part of the boat, had reached the upper deck, and driven the seven passengers back to the stern of the vessel. Fortunately, several boats were sent to the assistance of the burning steamer from vessels across the river, and the passengers were assisted into these and safely landed. The passengers on the Bladen were Miss Erambert and Mrs. Hunley and child of Fayetteville, Mr A. J. Harmon of Bladen, Mr Robert Lee of Wilmington, Mr Dodson, a commercial traveler, and two other gentleman whose names could not be learned.  They all made a narrow escape and lost all their baggage.
Meantime, the blazing steamer had set fire to a lighter filled with wood that was alongside, and to the wharves and sheds of the Clyde Steamship Company. The wind was blowing almost a gale from the southwest, and the  flames spread with great rapidity – sweeping up the wharves, and to the yards, warehouses and offices on Water street. Oil, tar, rosin and spirits turpentine in yards adjacent were ready fuel for the devouring flames, and in a very short time the whole river front from Chesnut to Mulberry was ablaze, and the stores and offices on the west side of Water street for the same distance, were enveloped. The firemen fought manfully and determinedly, but their efforts were futile; nothing could stay the progress of the flames, which leaped and roared like a demon, sending aloft showers of sparks and burning brands, that the high winds carried and hurled on the roofs of buildings squares away from the raging conflagration. To add to the difficulties that the firemen had to contend with, a dense black smoke filled the streets to the leeward of the fire, rendering it almost impossible for any effective work to be done in that quarter.
The fire pressed steadily onward along the river front, burning wharves and sheds and quantities of naval stores and other merchandise. The schooner Lillie Holmes, lying at the wharf beyond the steamship wharf was soon wrapped in flames and consumed; the men escaped, but saved nothing of their effects.  And the steamer River Queen with cargo, just from Fayetteville, suffered a like fate.
On Water street the fire spared the building on the west side occupied by Messrs. Smith & Gilchrist, but swept away the stores and offices of Messrs. Kerchner & Calder Bros.  S. P. Shotter & Co., and A. H. Green, and on the east side from the store of Mr M. J. Heyer, (which was badly damaged) including a dozen other brick stores and tenements to Mulberry. The flames then crossed that street to the large warehouses and offices of Messrs. Worth & Worth and Paterson, Downing & Co., which rapidly succumbed.  Sweeping onward, the flames next attacked and devoured on the west side of Water street the premises of Messrs. Alex Sprunt & Son, Mr J. A. Fore’s saw mills, the Champion Cotton Compress, and the two large freight warehouses of the Wilmington, Columbia & Augusta and Wilmington & Weldon Railroads, with about a dozen box cars laden with miscellaneous freight.  After attacking the large brick building occupied by Messr.s Worth & Worth and Paterson, Downing & Co., the fire crossed to the east side of Water street, and swept away everything from the corner of Mulberry to the railroad, including the large merchant mills of Mr J. G. Boney and Mr C. B. Wright and the block of brick stores extending from Mulberry to Walnut streets.
During the progress of the fire on Water street, the high winds carried burning brands far and wide, setting fire to many buildings squares away, even so far as Fifth and Hanover streets, where a square and a half of wooden houses occupied by colored people were burned.  Before the fire had crossed Mulberry street on Water, burning brands also set fire to the residence of Hon. Geo Davis, on Second between Walnut and Red Cross streets. This house burned slowly, but there were no means available to save it until it was too late.
The First Methodist church, on Front street at the corner of Walnut, caught fire in the large wooden belfry on top from sparks borne by the winds from the burning merchant mill of Mr C. B. Wright, and soon the whole interior of the large edifice was in flames. Soon after the whole square, consisting of residences, bounded by Second and Front on the east and west and Walnut and Red Cross on the south and north, were burning, until nothing was left unconsumed on the square but the Methodist parsonage, in rear of the church on the corner of Walnut and Second streets.
All the buildings on the west side of Front street from Walnut to Red Cross were also burned, including the offices of the Atlantic Coast Line, in the large building on the corner of Front and Red Cross streets. After burning the square on the west side of Second, the fire crossed Red Cross street and destroyed the residence of the late Henry Nutt. This was the last building burned; the further progress of the flames being stayed by the wide gap caused by the railroad excavation just beyond in a northeasterly direction.
The scenes in and around the burning district were heart-rending. Many of the residents of the burned buildings and those adjacent removed their furniture and household goods, only to see them burned in the streets, others were removed to places of safety; but by far the larger part of the sufferers were unable to save anything of either furniture or clothing. Early during the progress of the fire it was seen that the Fire Department of the city was unable to cope with it, and the Mayor attempted to open communication with Goldsboro for assistance, but all the poles and wires of the Western Union Company were burned down along Water street, and also the wires of the Wilmington & Weldon Railroad Company, and it was impossible to do so. Mr Clem Brown, manager of the Western Union, however, succeeded after awhile in making connection with the wires beyond the burned district, and soon opened communication with Goldsboro, and also with Florence, SC. The call for assistance was readily responded to from both these places, and the fire company from Florence with their apparatus soon arrived and assisted in extinguishing the flames.
Toward nightfall the Wilmington Light Infantry were requested by the Mayor to assemble at the company’s armory, and as special policemen, post sentinels in and around the burned district for the protection of property exposed on the streets. The company turned out with thirty five muskets, which number was swelled during the night to forty-five. Under the command of Capt W. C. Jones, the company performed efficient service, in several instances driving off pilferers and stopping disturbances among knots of drunken men, gathered on the streets.  They were relieved at seven o’clock Monday morning.
Many of the firemen were also on duty throughout the night, extinguishing the burning debris and preventing other fires.  They worked heartily and faithfully throughout the progress of the fire, and although their efforts seemed to be ineffectual, they really prevented a more disastrous conflagration. They fought the flames in front and ear unfalteringly and on the fire’s flanks, all along the line, with the grim determination of veterans. Their water supply was inadequate. They were cut off from the river, except in the rear of the fire, and had to rely elsewhere entirely on the Water Works, and although these were working to their full capacity, the great drain upon it from steamers and every hose that could be attached to fireplugs, greatly weakened the force of the streams. It is impossible to correctly estimate the losses at this writing. Roughly stated it may approximate one million dollars.
A Large Portion of the Business Part of the City Laid in Ruins – Two Steamers and a Schooner Burned – Railroad Freight Depots in Ruins – Many Valuable Residences Swept Away – Scenes and Incidents of the Great Fire. The fire in “Brooklyn’ began on the roof of St. Barnabas school house, corner Fifth and Hanover streets and erected by St. Marks’ (colored) Episcopal church.  It caught from burning cinders carried by the winds from the fire raging on Water street.  Being a wooden building it ws quickly destroyed, but not before the flames had spread to other houses, nearly all occupied by colored people.  The store of Mr M. Rathjen, corner of Sixth and Swann streets was burned, the proprietor saving but little of its contents, and the colored Methodist Church on the corner of Seventh and Bladen streets.  Several other buildings were burned on this street; and in all eighteen or nineteen houses in that section of the city were destroyed, the inmates losing the greater part if not all of their household goods.
The following is a partial list of the sufferers by the fire – so far as we have been able to ascertain them.
Mrs. S. R. Bunting, dwelling; no insurance. Furniture saved.
Hon. Geo. Davis, dwelling; insured. Furniture saved.
Col. E. R. Brink, dwelling and furniture; part of the latter saved. Insured.
Brick dwelling house belonging to the estate of the late henry Nutt, occupied by Mrs. W. L. Parsley, H. Emerson, and Dr. J. H. Durham. Partly insured.
Two brick dwellings belonging to Mr Sol. Bear; on occupied by Mr Wm. Aldridge and the other by Mr Bear.  Insured.
Two frame houses owned by the Messrs. Chadbourn and occupied by Mr S. P. McNair and Mrs. Winston.  Insured.
Large brick dwelling occupied by Mr Smith, recently from Burgaw, who saved nothing.
Mrs. B. Flanner’s residence. Insured.
Frame house owned by Mr J. Alves Walker. Insured. The occupants saved part of their furniture. 
Frame dwelling owned by Mr P. Donlan; insured.
Front Street Methodist church; partly insured.
Frame house opposite the church, belonging to Mr D. L. Gore and occupied by two families; insured.
Brick dwelling belonging to Mr James Madden; insured.
Frame house occupied by Mrs. Pridgen, whose furniture was partly insured.
Brick building, offices of the Atlantic Coast Line; no insurance.
Messrs. S. P. Shotter & Co., naval stores; found safe and books all right and were fully insured.
Messrs. Smith & Gilchrist, grocers and commission merchants, loss small, fully insured. 
Building owned by Kerchner & Calder Bros.
Mr C. B. Wright; merchant mill a total loss; insured for $10,000 on mill and $6,000 on stock.
Mr A. W. Watson; loss $1,500; no insurance.
Mr H. W. Bryant, grocer.  Loss $8,000; insurance $1,000.
Mr Owen Fennell, 36 bales of cotton burned; fully insured.
M. J. Heyer, grocer and commission merchant, damaged principally by water. Loss about $10,000; fully insured.  Building owned by J. C. Heyer; insured.
Messrs. Worth & Worth, commission merchants and grocers; loss $75,000; fully insured.
Mr C. H. Wessell, grocer; loss $3,000; insurance $1,500.
Mrs. Bryson (Mariners’ Hotel); loss $6,000; insurance $2,000.
Mr John G. Oldenbuttel, loss on buildings $3,000; insurance $1,200.
Martin O’Brien, three brick stores and stock a total loss -- $7,000,
One wooden building, insured.
Champion Compress Company $50,000 loss; insurance $27,000. Three thousand bales of cotton burned; insured.
New York Steamship Co.’s wharf and sheds, owned by Kerchner & Calder Bros., insured.
The officers of the Atlantic Coast Line estimate that company’s total loss at $30,000. They have purchased the residence of Mr Wm. Calder, corner of Front and mulberry streets, which will at once be fitted up for the company’s headquarters.
The Southern Bell Telephone company lose $300; American Bell Company, $700.
No estimates of losses were obtained from Messrs. Paterson, Downing & Co., Alex. Sprunt & Son, and Kerchner & Calder Bros., which were large, but fully insured.  Messrs. Sprunt & Son’s loss was stated by other parties at
The steamer Bladen was insured for $5,000 and valued at $7,000.
The steamer River Queen was insured for $1,000.
The schooner Lillie Holmes was burned to the water’s edge.  She was valued at $80,000 and uninsured.
The insurance companies doing business in the city furnish the following list of their liabilities:
With Northrop & Hodges: J. M. Forshee, $1,000 on mdse; heirs of Henry Nutt, 800 on frame store; heirs of Henry Nutt, 400 on shed and office; Robt Robinson, 1,800 on frame bulding; Samuel Beal, Sen, 990 on mdse; J G Oldenbuttel 200 on frame building; Champion Compress 2,000 on building; Sol Bear, 2,300 on furniture; Charles Wessell, 1,500 on dock; Bladen Steamboat Co., 2,000 on steamer; W H Sprunt; 200 on horses and harness; James Sprunt, 175 on horses and buggies; Alex Sprunt & Son, 1,500 on wharf structure; M Bear & Bros, 400 on frame building; N Giles & Co, 1,000 on rice in the W & W R R warehouse; estate of John McRae, 1,000 on saw mill building; all in the Phoenix, of Hartford. Samuel Bear, Sen, $636 on mdse; Worth & Worth, 4,080 on cotton; all in London and Lancashire, of Liverpool, Eng. M J Heyer, $1,000 on stock; D G Worth and estate of N G Daniel, 1,500 on frame sheds; Champion Compress Co, 2,500 on building and machinery; N Giles & Co, 2,500 on rice in W W R R warehouse; Sol Bear, 3,500 on dwelling house; Hall & Pearsall, 387 on cotton; all in the Home, of New York. Champion Compress Co, $5,000 on building and machinery; Alex Sprunt & Son, 2,500 on building and office furniture; Front Street M E Church, $3,000 on building and furniture; all in Royal Insurance Company, of Liverpool. Front Street M E Church, $1,800 on pipe organ; Hall & Pearsall, 2,193 on cotton; all in Georgia Home, of Columbus, Ga. Worth & Worth, $4,000 on merchandise; Champion Compress Co, 5,000 on building and machinery; all in Lancashire, of Manchester. Champion Compress Co, $5,000 on building and machinery; Worth & Worth 4,185 on cotton; George Davis, 3,000 on dwelling; Kerchner & Calder Bros, 2,500 on building; John C Heyer, 2,000 on building; all in New York Underwriters Agency. Worth & Worth, $5,400 on merchandise; John R Turrentine $1,500 on merchandise; Mary A Winton, 1,200 on furniture; all in Germania, of New York. Bladen Steamboat Co, $2,000 on steamer; Charles Wessel, 1,500 on building; J. G. Oldenbuttel, 5,000 on frame building; Champion Compress Co, 5,000 on building and machinery; J W Taylor, Agent 1,500 on saw mill machinery; all in Western Assurance Co, of Toronto, Conn. Hall & Pearsall, $1,032 on cotton; Hall & Pearsall 1.72 on cotton; all in Norwich Union, of Norwich, England.
With Jno W Gordon & Smith: Jno C Heyer, $2,000 on building; M J Heyer 2,000 on stock; E R Brink, 8,750 on dwelling and furniture; Hall & Pearsall, 4,750 on cotton; P Donlan, 1,600 on dwelling and furniture; Mrs S A Flanner, 8,000 on dwelling and furniture; C B Wright, 2,500 on building; Kerchner & Calder Bros, 3,000 on sheds; F A Newbury, 500 on building; Alex Sprunt & Son, 4,000 on brick building and sheds; M Rathjen, 1,200 on building; J W Taylor, 1,000 on machinery; all in Liverpool & London & Globe. Paterson, Downing & Co, $8,000 on naval stores; C S Love & Co, 2,000 on naval stores, Worth & Worth, 2,000 on naval stores; Christine Oldham, 500 on furniture; T B Henderson, 1,000 on merchandise; Hall & Pearsall, 344 on cotton; S P Shotter & Co, 6,500 on naval stores; all in Hamburg Bremen, of Hamburg. Hall & Pearsall, $86 on cotton; estate of John McRae, 1,000 on mill; C B Wright, 8,000 on stock; S P Shotter & Co, 600 on office furniture; all in Phoenix Assurance of London. E K Pridgen, $280 on furniture; Hall & Pearsall, 869 on cotton; Louis J Poisson, 150 on furniture; all in the Rochester German, of Rochester, N Y. M Rathjen, $900 on stock and furniture; James I Metts, 900 on furniture; Hall & Pearsall, 129 on cotton; all in the Virginia fire and Marine, of Richmond. J W Taylor, $750 on machinery, in Alabama of Mobile, and 750 on machinery in the Citizen of Mobile.
With Atkinson & Manning:  Pembroke Jones, $5625 on cotton ties: M J Heyer, 2,500 on stock; Mrs A M Parsley, 1,500 on building: Worth & Worth, 13,200 on building and stock; D G Worth and estate of N G Daniel, 10,950 on
building; Hall & Pearsall, 28,800 on cotton; George L Arp, 2,000 on guano; J G Oldenbuttel, 500 on building; Samuel Bear, Sr, 4,325 on dwelling and furniture; C B Wright, 5,500 on building and stock; Mrs C R Gause, 300
furniture; Bagley, Stewart & Bagley, 1,000 on steamer River Queen; St Barnabas School House, 1,500; H R Kuhl, 1,000 on dwelling house; Thomas Rivera, 300 on dwelling.
These amounts are divided between the following companies: Queen, North British & Mercantile, Hartford, Phoenix, aEtna, Commercial, Union, Fire Association, City of London, Hibernia and North Carolina Home.
With DeRosset & Northrop; Worth & Worth, $12,500 on mdse; Smith & Gilchrist, 1,000 on mdse; Bladen Steamboat Co, 1,500 on steamer; M J Heyer, 1,000 on stock; C B Wright 2,500 on building; Champion Compress Co, 2,500 on building, machinery and all in North America of Philadelphia; J M Forshee, 1,000 on stock, in Springfield Fire and Marine, of Springfield, Mass.
With M S Willard: Owen  Fennell, $8,000 on cotton; E Lilly, 1,600 on cotton; A H Greene, 2,500 on cotton; D L Gore, 1,000 on cotton; Kerchner & Calder Bros, 1,000 on frame warehouse; W I Gore, Son & Co, 1,000 on mdse; Smith & Gilchrist, 50 on cotton seed; heirs of H Nutt, $1,800 on brick stores; M J Heyer, 2,500 on stock; Alex Sprunt & son, 1,500 on spirit barrels, & c; James Madden, 2,200 on brick building; G J Boney, 6,000 on machinery and 2,000 on stock; Mrs E H Newkirk, 1,500 on brick building, occupied by G J Boney; C B Wright, 300 on hay; heirs of H Nutt 4,300 on brick dwelling; Mrs. Emily Gerhardt, 350 on furniture; Alex Sprunt & Son, floating insurance. These amounts were divided as follows: $8,000 in Continental; 10,250 in Fire Insurance Association; 1,800 in German American; 4,950 in Sun; 5,195 in Northern; aggregating 30,195
With Wm L Smith & Co: Delia Bryson, $2,000 on brick hotel; M J Heyer, 1,000 on stock; H W Bryant, 1,000 on stock; all in Scottish Union & National. Kerchner & Calder Bros, $2,500 on brick building; Bladen Steamboat Company, 1,000 on steamboat; J H Durham, 800 on furniture; J A Walker, 2,100 on dwelling; all in Connecticut fire. Worth & Worth, $8,000 on naval stores; J C Stevenson, 500 floating policy; C B Wright, 2,500 on mill building; all in Crescent Insurance Company.
In the Germania Mutual Fire Insurance Company, Louis J Poisson, agent: M J Heyer, furniture, etc, $500; Kerchner & Calder Bros, mdse, 500; L C Kerchner, building 2,000; M J O’Brien, 700; E J Pennypacker, compress, 1,000; Geo L Arp, 1,000.
The Hope Steam Fire Engine Company of Florence which so gallantly came to our rescue at the fire Sunday evening, returned home yesterday afternoon at 2 o’clock. The company did gallant service while with us.  They were on duty all night at the railroad warehouses, extinguishing the flames and preventing the fire from spreading. The company was commanded by Captain J. Jellico, and has thirty-five members. They responded promptly to the appeal for aid and in twenty minutes after receiving the dispatch from May Hall were at the depot in Florence with their engine, and three hours afterwards were in Wilmington ready for work.
A public meeting was held at the rooms of the Produce Exchange at 12:30 o’clock yesterday. On motion Mayor Hall was called to the chair, and J I. Macks, Esq., was requested to act as Secretary. On motion of F. H. Darby, Esq., a committee of five was appointed to draft suitable resolutions expressive of the sense of the meeting. Cols. J. W. Atkinson, W. L. DeRosset, Messrs. F. H. Darby, Sameul Bear, Jr., and J. D. Bellamy were appointed on said committee. On motion, the Mayor was requested to close the bar rooms of the city for the next twenty-four hours.
The special committee, through Col. J. W. Atkinson, offered the following preamble and resolutions: A fearful disaster has befallen our city by the fire which rendered homeless so many of our citizens, and destroyed vast amounts of property; and it seems right that some action shall be taken promptly to alleviate the distress that must ensue in this calamity; therefore be it Resolved, That a committee of fifteen be appointed by the chair to solicit subscriptions for the relief of the destitute and to collect and turn over the same to a special committee of five to be likewise appointed, who shall be fully authorized to distribute the same according to their best judgment.
Resolved, That the thanks of the entire community be extended to the Fire Departments of Florence, SC, and Goldsboro, N. C. for their prompt response to the request for assistance which was sent by our Mayor to the authorities of these towns, and that the Mayor and authorities of our city be requested to tender to the fire companies of the same towns reimbursement of their expenses incurred in coming to our relief.
Resolved, That we desire to express our high appreciation of the efficient and unselfish services rendered by our own gallant firemen.
Resolved, That we appreciate the valuable services of the Wilmington Light Infantry Company, acting as special guard and police, and recognize the good results of their presence in maintaining order and quiet among the large number of people assembled on the streets during the entire night.
The resolutions were unanimously adopted and the following committees appointed:
On Subscriptions – Messrs. J. W. Atkinson, F. Rheinstein, H. C. McQueen, Geo., W. Kidder, H #ollers, J. D. Munds, F. H. Mitchell, Samuel Bear, Jr. H. A. Bagg, A. H. Green, J. H. Currie, B. F. Hall, D. G. Worth, F. W. Kerchner, R M. McIntire.
On Distribution – Donald Mc Rae, G. W. Williams, Roger Moore, Clayton Giles, W. I. Gore.
On motion, the committee having in charge certain funds raised on a previous occasion for the relief of the cyclone suffers, and which had not been expended, were requested to turn over the same to this committee on subscriptions.
On motion, the Secretary was requested to furnish the press of the city with the proceedings of the meeting and that copies of the resolutions be sent to the cities of Florence and Goldsboro.
About $1,000 was subscribed at the meeting, in addition to four hundred dollars in the hands of the Merchants committee. On motion the meeting adjourned.

Observer And Gazette Fayetteville, NC; February 25, 1886
The loss of the steamer Bladen, briefly mentioned in the account of the fire at Wilmington on Sunday morning last, was caused by fire which occurred when the steamer was within 150 yards of her wharf. The most strenuous efforts immediately became necessary to save the lives of the passengers and crew, as the flames increased with fearful rapidity, and the Bladen was run in at the shed of the New York steamers, where the passengers were with difficulty landed in safety from small boats, but with the loss of all their baggage.
The Bladen was a stern-wheel steamer of wooden hull, remodeled in the spring of 1885, was fitted up for both passengers and freight, and had a capacity of about 800 barrels of rosin.  She was owned by the “Bladen Steamboat Company,” and Messrs. A. E. Rankin & Co. were the agents at Fayetteville.  She was built at a cost of $9,000, and was insured for $5,500, with $2,500 on cargo.  A lot of 112 bales of cotton shipped by Mr R. M. Nimocks to Messrs. Sprunt & Son, Wilmington, was protected by a floating policy.  Capt R. H. Tomlinson had recently been made commander of the Bladen, and at the time of its burning both he and Capt Jeff. D. Robinson were on board.
The passengers on board the Bladen, were Messrs. Robt. Lee, of Wilmington, A. J. Harmon, of Bladen county, Dodson, a commercial traveler, Mrs. Thos. Hundley and child, of Fayetteville, Miss Erambert, of Richmond, Va., and one or two others whose names were not learned. We learn that Miss Erambert was for a few moments in great danger, her hair being singed and clothing scorched before she could be rescued from the boat.

Fayetteville Observer & Gazette January 21, 1886
From the Wilmington Star
The drift ice made a clean sweep of everything in its way in the lower part of the Cape Fear River Thursday night. It carried away the light-house built on piles of Drum shoals, just above New Inlet and the Drum shoals buoy. No. 7 buoy, in the Horse Shoe, and the buoy in the lower part of Snow’s Marsh channel were also carried away, besides the piling along the channel. Some of the fields of ice were half a mile square or more and four to five inches thick. At Smithville the pilot boat Oriental, Capt Newton, was dragged from her moorings and carried out about a mile before she could be freed from the ice. The copper on her sides was cut through in places. The schooner Ware, used as a lighter, was jammed on Battery Island shoals, where a hole was cut in her side and she filled and sank to the water’s edge.  She was loaded with rosin for the barque Richard, lying at Smithville. Pilots say that all the marks at the mouth of the river are now gone, and until they are replaced navigation will be difficult, especially in thick weather.

Fayetteville Observer & Gazette January 21, 1886
Capt A. H. Worth, a steamboat captain of many years’ experience on the Cape Fear, gives us a graphic picture of the pains and perils of river navigation last week. At Harrison’s Creek, last Thursday, his steamer, the River Queen, became as completely ice-bound as ever was Dr. Kane in the frozen regions of the North Pole. The water seemed to be solid almost to the bed of the river, and by no power of steam could the boat cut its way through the dense mass, while the roaring sound of the great cakes of ice grinding and crushing one upon another reminded on of a dozen steamers ploughing their way along the stream.

The Wilmington Messenger Saturday, April 21, 1888
A Solid House
What a Messenger Reporter Picked Up On Water Street Yesterday. One of the most conservative, substantial and progressive business houses of Wilmington is the firm of Hall & Pearsall, wholesale grocers and commission
merchants, 11 and 13 South Water street. The members of the firm are Messrs. B. F. Hall and Oscar Pearsall, both of whom are natives of Duplin county.  Mr Hall, the senior member of the firm, is a well preserved man in the forties perhaps, and has been doing business in Wilmington since 1869. He has been identified first and last with the progress of the city.  He has been connected with the Chamber of Commerce and Produce Exchange as one of its officers, and is at present a director of the First National Bank of Wilmington, and is also a member of the board of directors of the Wilmington Seacoast Railroad.  He is also identified with other enterprises in one way or another, and is a liberal patron of the deserving institutions of the city.
Mr Oscar Pearsall, the junior member of the firm, is a middle aged man, and is one of the city's sound business men and influential citizens.  Besides his general connection with various enterprises in the city, he is a member of the Board of Aldermen and chairman of the Committee on Streets and Wharves, and of the Sanitary Committee.  As chairman of the former committee, he has done great service for the city in the way of improving our streets and prompltly attending to their repair.  Mr Pearsall has been connected since 1869 with his present partner, first as a salesman and buyer in the house of Edwards & Hall and since 1876 as a partner of the present firm to which he was admitted just previous to the death of Mr Edwards the former partner.
by Messrs. Hall & Pearsall is large and full at all seasons, consisting of meat, molasses, flour, sugar, coffees, salt, all kinds of groceries, fertilizers, etc., etc.
The firm does an exclusive wholesale business, and has its patrons far and near. The building which they occupy at Nos. 11 and 13 South Water street, is a two-story brick structure, and both stories are packed from bottom to top with merchandise. The store-room proper is forty feet in width and eighty in depth, and on the second story is a room the same size. On the first floor the general stock is carried, and here also are the business offices and the receiving and shipping departments. The second story is used for storing peanuts, bagging, etc.  Notwithstanding the large storerooms mentioned, the house is so cramped for room that two warerooms across the alley are used for meat and heavy groceries.
In addition to these storerooms there are two large warehouses on the waterfront which are used for storing salt, molasses and other heavy groceries and fertilizers. One of these warehouses is probably the largest merchandise warehouse in the city, being one hundred feet in width by one hundred and fifty feet in length, and having a wharf front of two hundred feet. The other warehouse is situated on the wharf in front of the store and is thirty by seventy feet, having a wharf front of 140 feet.  Both of these warehouses are crowded with goods, and still there is not room enough to carry the large stock which this house has to carry to accomodate a large and growing trade.
of the house is done in cotton, naval stores, peanuts and other country produce, and for the transaction of this business the firm has the most complete facilities besides having a wharf front of nearly 300 feet at their warehouses, their yard for handling naval stores is situated at Point Peter, where they have a frontage of about 1,000 feet on the Cape Fear and Northeast rivers.  The yard for naval stores also comprises about six acres on which there are capacious sheds and other facilities for handling consignments of naval stores on the largest scale.
The growth of the business of Messrs. Hall & Pearsall has been steady and uniform since the establishment of their copartnership.  Their trade extends over a wide territory in North and South Carolina, and is growing in both States.
They also run a line of schooners for the coasting trade, dealing principally with Onslow county.  The schooners make regular trips, bringing in country produce and taking out merchandise for the large trade the house has in the territory there is opened up.
The firm has two drummers, Messrs. J. W. MacRae, formerly of Maxton, and Mr J. C. Cox, formerly of Kenansville, who look after the out of town trade.  Mr W. J. Toomer is the manager of the commision business, Mr T. M. Dobson is shipping clerk,  Mr B. F. King is the cashier, Mr R. W. Price is the bookkeeper and Mr Andrew J. Howell is the stenographer of the house. Next to owning the building at Nos. 11 and 13 South Water street and the valuable warehouses and water fronts mentioned, the firm is fortunate in having such a corps of capable and business like assistants. With their facilities, superior business methods and ample capital, the firm
of Hall & Pearsall takes a leading place in the commercial ranks of our city and is one of the business houses of which Wilmington has cause to be proud.

The Wilmington Messenger April 22, 1900
His Resignation as Commander of State's Naval Reserves Tendered and Accepted. A special dispatch to The Messenger last night from our correspondent at Raleigh, stated that Governor Russell had received the resignation of Geo. L. Morton, as commander of the naval reserve brigade of this state and that the resignation had been accepted. The reason given by Commander Morton for his resignation was pressure of private business.

Wilmington Dispatch February 18, 1904
Fire early last night destroyed property of Hall & Pearsall and the George L. Morton Company, on the waterfront, valued at about $25,000, almost fully covered by insurance.  At one time it appeared that the fire would spread to
other valuable property in that section of the city, but by hard fighting the fire department succeeded in controlling the flames and confining them to a comparatively small area. The Seaboard Air Line warehouses on the north and Hall & Pearsall's large "Water-Land Warehouse" on the south narrowly escaped burning. The fire was discovered at 7:30 o'clock by Night Watchman A.C. Bielet. The department responded to the alarm from box 41 at Nutt and Brunswick streets. The fire started on the north side of Hall & Pearsall’s small warehouse. The building was soon in flames. In it were stowed spirits of turpentine, molasses, hay, vinegar, etc., cotton seed, meal, cotton and a few other kinds of heavy goods. Two explosions scattered the debris and the fire broke out in several places at the same time. The naval stores yard of the George L. Morton Co. were soon in flames and about 500 barrels of tar and crude turpentine together with 300 empty tar barrels were burned. The company also lost 75 casks of spirits in the warehouse. The firemen fought the flames from the land and from the river. Two engines and several streams from hydrants were used on the land side and the tug MARION and a fire engine on a flat, which was towed by the MARION, kept several streams playing on the fire from the river. One of the engines on land came near being caught by the flames but the firemen, by brave work succeeded in saving it with little damage. The fire was under control in two hours. On account of the poor location of hydrants the firemen were at a great disadvantage in fighting the flames. The fire is thought to have been started by wood cutters who were at work there yesterday and left without putting out the fire which they built to keep warm.

The Evening Dispatch, Wilmington, NC  Saturday, March 19, 1910 Volume Fifteen
Given Big Promotion by the Galena Co.
Is to Have Charge of the Entire Southern Territory and Is in Line for an Executive Office—Will Remove to Atlanta—He Retires From the Race for the Legislature—Political Pot is Now Boiling Fast and Furiously.
In recognition of able service Col. George L. Morton, of this city, has just been given one of the most important positions with the Galena Signal Oil Company, and which well deserved promotion places him in line for an executive office with the big concern.
He has been named as Southern Manager of the Galena Company, and this means something big, as his field will cover the entire South, taking in points from Cincinnati to and including New Orleans, La. The only regrettable part about promotion is the fact that it will carry Col. Morton and family away from Wilmington, as while Wilmington will still be in the Southern territory and hence under the direction of Col. Morton, he will have to remove his headquarters, so as to be centrally located.  Hence, he will within the next month or two remove his residence from here to Atlanta, Ga.  This was stated to a Dispatch man  this afternoon about 3 o’clock, Col. Morton arrived home early this afternoon, via the Seaboard and was seen then by The Dispatch man.  He of course, regrets to leave Wilmington, which has many times honored him with office, and it must be frankly admitted honored him, too, when the odds seemed greatly against him, but which made the honor all the greater.
He has time and time again represented New Hanover county in the legislative halls of North Carolina and he was considered the strongest candidate in the race this time, and that, too, after having declined to run, but being brought out by a big petition by his friends, and without his knowledge.  Of course, Col. Morton states he will now withdraw from the race, and will prepare a card to this effect, and which will express his regret and his warm thanks to his many friends.
The many friends of Col. and Mrs. Morton will regret deeply to see them leave Wilmington.  Col. Morton has been a thorough Wilmingtonian and while his ideas did not always agree with many people’s, yet one could always place him.  He was always frank and to the point.
The retirement of Col. Morton will bring about a new boiling in the political pot, because many of those who aspired to the legislature were afraid to run against him. At present only Joseph W. Little, Esq., who has faithfully stuck to his candidacy and has been fighting hard, is in the race, but there are several more talked of.  Friends of Woodus Kellum, Esq., a popular and splendid young lawyer, stated this afternoon that he would be in the race, though Mr Kellum has made no definite announcement. Friends are also urging L. Clayton Grant, Esq., to run.
[Garbage line of newsprint] is also known now positively that ex-Alderman T. W. Wood is going to run for county commissioner.  Mr Wood stated such to a Dispatch man this morning when asked about it.  Mr Wood will make a strong run, as he made a good alderman and was foremost and in the thickest of the fight for municipal ownership of the waterworks.