Native Americans

National Coordinator: Denise Wells

NCGenWeb: State Coordinator


Native American Records at NARA From the National Archives
>>>Research Dawes Rolls online  
Native American History Page State Library of North Carolina
North Carolina, Commission of Indian Affairs State of North Carolina
First Immigrants: Native Americans of NC NC Museum of History
Museum of the Native American Resource Center University of North Carolina at Pembroke
Native American Books, for sale University of North Carolina Press
>>>Native American Books, for sale NC Office of Archives & History
Native Americans in North Carolina UNC American Indian Center
Native American Tribes of North Carolina
Native American History Access Genealogy's extensive Indian Records
Native American Rolls List & searchable from Access Genealogy
>>>Dawes Final Rolls Searchable Index
Proving Your Indian Ancestry Guide to researching & proving Indian ancestry
Starting Native American Research Guides & Resources to researching
Coastal Carolina Indian Center Extensive site for Native American research
>>>Researching Indian Ancestry How to find Indian ancestors
>>>Early Native American Names Indian names from early NC records
Cherokee By Blood Native American research, Indian Rolls
Cherokee Heritage Documentation Center Listings of the various Indian Census Rolls
Cherokee History Comprehensive website by Lee Sultzman
Eastern Band of Cherokees Cherokee, North Carolina
>>>1817 Cherokee Reservation Roll Searchable list of Applicants
>>>1924 Baker Rolls Searchable Final Rolls
>>> Cherokee Roots Finding your families Cherokee roots
>>>Guion Miller Rolls Searchable index to Applicants
>>>The Chapman Rolls 1851 Cherokee Indian Rolls
>>>Eastern Band Enumerations Selected microfilm records from NARA
>>>Henderson Roll 1835 Cherokee East Census-NC, list of Names
>>>Hester Roll 1884 List of Eastern Cherokee Names in NC
>>>The Siler Rolls 1851 Census of Cherokees
Drennan Rolls 1839 First arrivals after Trail of Tears
Old Settlers Roll 1851 list of Cherokee in Oklahoma before 1839
Trail of Tears Rolls Descriptions, info about records made at the time
Identifying Cherokee Ancestors A guide by geneticist Roberta Estes
Haliwa-Saponi Tribe History from Wikipedia
>>>Haliwa-Saponi Homepage Official tribal website
The First Carolinians: Natives & Newcomers The Way We Lived in North Carolina
The Lumbee Tribe Homepage for Lumbee Tribe
>>>Lumbee History Lumbee Regional Development Association
>>>Native Languages: Lumbee Native Languages of America: Lumbee
The Melungeons Many online resources from FamilySearch
>>>Melungeon Heritage Association Info on Melungeon history & research
The Tuscarora War:1711-1715 The early wars with Native Americans
>>>Among the Tuscarora: John Lawson LearnNC story of Lawson among early Tuscarora
>>>A New Look at the Tuscarora War Coastal Carolina website article
>>>The Tuscarora War LearnNC
Fort Christanna Built to house Native tribes 1713-1718
Indian Removal
Indian Removal (1814-1858) from
Removing Native Americans from their Land From the Library of Congress
The Effects of Removal on American Indian Tribes National Humanities Center
eXplorations Indian Removal Digital History website


The Thomas Legion LearnNC, history & biography
Thomas' Legion; The 69th NC Regiment North Carolina's only Civil War legion
American Indian Wars
From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
2 Colonial Period
3 East of the Mississippi (1775–1842)
3.1 American Revolutionary War 1775-1783

3.2 Cherokee -American Wars
3.3 Northwest Indian War
3.4 Tecumseh, the Creek War, and the War of 1812
3.5 Removal era wars
3.6 Second Seminole War
4 West of the Mississippi (1823–1890)
4.1 Background
4.2 Texas
4.3 Pacific Northwest
4.4 Southwest
4.5 California
4.6 Great Basin

4.7 Great Plains
4.7.1 Dakota War
4.7.2 Colorado War, Sand Creek Massacre, & Souix War of 1865
4.7.3 Sheridan's campaigns
4.7.4 Red Cloud's War and Treaty at Fort Laramie
4.7.5 Black Hills War
4.8 Last Conflicts
The Tuscarora Wars 1711-1715 from Historic Bath: NC Historic Sites

Indian Wars is the name used in the United States to describe a series of conflicts between the colonial or federal government and the native people of North America.

The earliest English settlers in what would become the United States often enjoyed peaceful relations with nearby tribes. However, as early as the Pequot War of 1637, the colonists were taking sides in military rivalries between native nations in order to assure colonial security and open further land for settlement. The wars, which ranged from the seventeenth-century (King Philip's War, King William's War, and Queen Anne's War at the opening of the eighteenth century) to the Wounded Knee massacre and "closing" of the American frontier in 1890, generally resulted in the opening of Native American lands to further colonization, the conquest of Native Americans and their assimilation, or forced relocation to Indian reservations.

A controversy continues on the question of whether the American Indian Wars were part of a genocide of Native Americans. Scholars take different positions in the ongoing genocide debate. Various statistics have been developed concerning the devastation of these wars on the peoples involved. The best-documented figures are derived from collated records of strictly military engagements such as by Gregory Michno which reveal 21,586 dead, wounded, and captured civilians and soldiers for the period of 1850–90. Other figures are derived from extrapolations of rather cursory and unrelated government accounts such as that by Russell Thornton who calculated that some 45,000 Native Americans and 19,000 whites were killed in battle. This later rough estimate includes women and children on both sides, since noncombatants were often killed in frontier massacres.Whether non-combat deaths resulting indirectly from war (for instance the 4,000 Cherokees who died on the Trail of Tears) should be reckoned part of the legacy of the Indian Wars is a matter of fierce debate. Then, as today, many deaths involved hunger, disease, and intertribal violence set in motion by the disruptions of war, but not direct violence. When these deaths are counted, the number of Native Americans who died from the results of wars is generally accepted to be orders of magnitude higher than those killed outright. Academic estimates of deaths resulting from war and the results of war range from historian David Stannard's total of 100 million (for all of the Americas) to political scientist R. J. Rummel's estimate of 2 million to 15 million, with a common figure cited being 10 million people.

What is not disputed is that the savagery from both sides was such as to be noted in newspapers, historical archives, diplomatic reports, and the United States Declaration of Independence. ("…[He] has endeavoured to bring on the inhabitants of our frontiers, the merciless Indian Savages whose known rule of warfare, is an undistinguished destruction of all ages, sexes and conditions.")

The Indian Wars comprised a series of smaller wars. Native Americans, diverse peoples with their own distinct tribal histories, were no more a single people than the Europeans. Living in societies organized in a variety of ways, Native Americans usually made decisions about war and peace at the local level, though they sometimes fought as part of formal alliances, such as the Iroquois Confederation, or in temporary confederacies inspired by leaders such as Tecumseh.

~ North Carolina Counties with Native American Information ~
NC Cherokee Reservation Genealogy Anson County
Beaufort County Bertie County
Cherokee County Chowan County
Guilford County Halifax County
Moore County Nash County
Person County Transylvania County

Contact: NCGenWeb State Coordinator 

© 23 April 2010 - Present, NCGenWeb Project

Last updated:  May 31, 2017