Extract from The Indian Tribes of North America by John R. Swanton
North Carolina (Partial)
Bear River (or Bay River) Indians
A body of Indians mentioned by Lawson and associated with Algonquian tribes. They may have been a part of the Machapunga. Rights (1947) calls them the Bear River or Bay River Indians. Lawson (1709) gives the name of their town as Raudauqua-quank and estimates the number of their fighting men at 50. Mooney (1928) places them with the Pamlico in his estimate as of the year 1600 and gives the two a population of 1,000.
(Meaning in Algonquian "(people) at the south.")
Connections.—The Chowanoc belonged to the Algonquian linguistic family and were evidently most nearly allied to the other North Carolina Algonquians.
Location.—On Chowan River about the junction of Meherrin and Blackwater Rivers.
Maraton, on the east bank of Chowan River in Chowan County.
Ohanoak, on the west side of Chowan River not far below Nottoway River probably in Hertford County.
Catoking, (probably) near Gatesville, in Gates County.
Metocaum, on Chowan River in the present Bertie County.
Ramushonok, apparently between the Meherrin and Nottoway Rivers in Hertford County.
History.—In 1584-85, when first known to Europeans, the Chowanoc were the leading tribe in northeastern North Carolina. In 1663 they entered into a treaty with the English by which they submitted to the English Crown, but they violated this in 1675 and after a year of warfare were compelled to confine themselves to a reservation on Bennett's Creek which became reduced by 1707 from 12 square miles to 6. They sided with the colonists in the Tuscarora War, and at about the same time were visited by a Church of England missionary, Giles Rainsford. In 1723 a reservation of 53,000 acres was set aside for them conjointly with the Tuscarora and in 1733 they were given permission to incorporate with that tribe. They continued to decline in numbers until in 1755 Governor Dobbs stated that only 2 men and 3 women were left.
Population.—In 1584-85 one of the Chowanoc towns, Ohanoak, was said to contain 700 warriors, and Mooney (1928) estimates their numbers at about 1,500 in 1,600. In 1707 they were reduced to one town with about 15 fighting men, but at the end of the Tuscarora War their numbers were placed at 240. In 1731 less than 20 families were reported and by 1755 only 5 individuals, as above noted.
Connection in which they have become noted.—The Chowanoc seem to have been the most powerful Algonquian tribe south of the Powhatan. Their memory is preserved in the names of Chowan River and Chowan County, and in the designation of a small post office in the county of the name, all in North Carolina.
Connections.—As the final stage of the Coree existence was passed with an Algonquian tribe, some have thought that the affiliations of this people were also Algonquian. On the other hand Lawson (1960) notes that their language and that of a tribe to the north were mutually intelligible and there is reason for thinking that this northern tribe belonged to the Iroquois Confederacy. At least the Coree were closely associated in many ways with the Iroquoian Tuscarora.
Location.—On the peninsula south of Neuse River in Carteret and Craven Counties.
Coranine, probably on the coast in Carteret County.
Narhantes, among the Tuscarora, 30 miles from Newbern.
Raruta, probably on the coast of Carteret County, south of Neuse River.
History.—When the Coree and the Whites first met is unknown, but they appear in the records of the Raleigh colony under the name Cwarennoc. They were greatly reduced before 1696 in a war with another people. They took part with the Tuscarora in their war against the colonists, and in 1715 the remnant of them and what was left of the Machapunga were assigned a reservation on Mattamuskeet Lake in Hyde County, where they occupied one village, probably until they became extinct. A few of them appear to have remained with the Tuscarora.
Population.—The population of this tribe and the Neusiok was estimated by Mooney (1928) at 1,000 in 1600. In 1707 Lawson says they had 25 fighting men and were living in 2 villages No later enumeration is known.
Connection in which they have become noted.—Although some distance from the Coree country, Core Greek Station in Craven County, N. C., may perpetuate the name of the Coree.
Connections.—The Hatteras belonged to the Algonquian linguistic family.
Location.—Among the sandbanks about Cape Hatteras east of Pamlico Sound and frequenting Roanoke Island.
Sandbanks, on Hatteras Island.
History.—Lawson (1860) thought the Hatteras showed traces of White blood and therefore they may have been the Croatan Indians with whom Raleigh's colonists are supposed to have taken refuge. They disappeared soon after as a distinct tribe and united with the mainland Algonquians. In 1761, the Rev. Alex. Stewart baptized 7 Indians and mixed-blood children of the "Attamuskeet, Hatteras, and Roanoke" tribes and 2 years later he baptized 21 more.
Population.—The Hatteras population has been estimated with the Machapunga and other tribes at 1,200 in 1600; they had 16 warriors in 1701, or a total population of about 80.
Connection in which they have become noted.—The possible connection of the Hatteras with the Croatan has been mentioned and their name has become perpetuated in the dangerous cape at the angle of the outer sand islands of their old country.
(Said to mean "bad dust," or "much dirt," in the native Algonquian language.)
Connections.—The Machapunga belonged to the Algonquian linguistic stock.
Location.—In the present Hyde County and probably also in Washington, Tyrrell, and Dare Counties, and part of Beaufort.
The only village named is Mattamuskeet (probably on Mattamuskeet Lake in Hyde County). However, we should probably add Secotan on the north bank of Pamlico River in Beaufort County, and perhaps the town of the Bear River Indians (q. v.).
History.—The Machapunga seem to have embraced the larger part of the descendants of the Secotan, who lived between Albemarle and Pamlico Sounds when the Raleigh colony was established on Roanoke Island (1585-86) though the Pamlico may also have been included under the same head. They were reduced to a single village by 1701, took part with other Indian tribes of the region in the Tuscarora War, and at its close were settled on Mattamuskeet Lake with the Coree. In 1761 a small number were still living in North Carolina, evidently at the same place, and the Rev. Alex. Stewart reported that he had baptized seven Indian and mixed-blood children belonging to the "Attamuskeet, Hatteras, and Roanoke." On a second visit 2 years later he baptized 21 more.
Population.—The Machapunga are estimated by Mooney (1928) to have numbered 1,200, including some smaller tribes, in 1600. In 1701 Lawson gives 30 warriors, probably less than 100 souls (Lawson, 1860). In 1775 there were said to be 8 to 10 on the mainland and as many more on the off-shore banks. In 1761 the number of warriors was only 7 or 8. The Bear River Indians (q. v.) may have combined with these.
Connection in which they have become noted.—In the form Machipongo, the name is applied to a post village in Northampton County, Va.
(A place name, but the meaning otherwise unknown.)
Connections.—There is little doubt that the Moratok belonged to the Algonquian linguistic stock and were closely related to the other Algonquian tribes of the sound region of North Carolina.
Location.—On Roanoke River and apparently on the north side, and estimated to be 160 miles up the river, though the distance is evidently reckoned from the Raleigh settlement on Roanoke Island.
The village bearing the name of the tribe is the only one known.
History.—The sole mention of the Moratok is in the narratives of the Raleigh expeditions. They were first recognized as an independent tribe by Mr. Maurice Mook (1943 a).
Population.—Unknown but reported as large.
(Probably a place name.)
Connections.—The form of this name suggests that the Neusiok were of the Algonquian stock, but they may have been Iroquoian like their neighbors the Tuscarora and Coree (?).
Location.—On lower Neuse River particularly on the south side, in Craven and Cartaret Counties.
Chattooka, on the site of Newbern, and Rouconk, exact location unknown.
History.—In 1584 Amadas and Barlowe heard of the Neusiok as a war with the tribes farther north. The later settlers speak of them as Neuse Indians. They dwindled away rapidly after White contact and perhaps united finally with the Tuscarora.
Population.—With the Coree the Neusiok are estimated by Mooney (1928) at 1,000 in the year 1600. In 1709 they numbered but 15 warriors although occupying two towns.
Connection in which they have become noted.—The name Neusiok is connected with that of the River Neuse in North Carolina, and a post village.
Connections.—The Pamlico belonged to the Algonquian linguistic stock.
Location.—On Pamlico River.
History.—The Pamlico are mentioned by the Raleigh colonists in 1585-86 under the name Pomouik. In 1696 they were almost destroyed by smallpox. In 1701 Lawson recorded a vocabulary from them which shows their affiliations to have been as given above (Lawson, 1860). In 1710 they lived in a single small village. They took part in the Tuscarora war, and at its close that part of the Tuscarora under treaty with the English agreed to destroy them. A remnant of the Pamlico was probably incorporated by the Tuscarora as slaves.
Population.—The Pamlico are estimated by Mooney (1928), together with "Bear River" Indians, as 1,000 in 1600. In 1710 they numbered about 75.
Connection in which they have become noted.—The Pamlico have given their name to or shared it with the largest sound in North Carolina and a North Carolina county. They are also noteworthy as having been almost if not quite the most southerly Algonquian tribe on the Atlantic seaboard, and the most southerly one from which a vocabulary has been collected.
their own name Ska-ru'-ren,
signifying according to Hewitt (in Hodge, 1910), "hemp gatherers,"
and applied on account of the great use they made of Apocynum cannabinum.)
Ani'-Skala'li, Cherokee name.
A-t'as-ka-lo'-len', Oneida name.
Tewohomomy (or Keew-ahomomy), Saponi name.
Connections.—The Tuscarora belonged to the Iroquoian linguistic family.
Location.—On the Roanoke, Tar, Pamlico, and Neuse Rivers.
The Tuscarora should be considered a confederacy with three tribes or a tribe with three subtribes as follows: Ka'te'nu'a'ka', "People of the submerged pine tree"; Akawantca'ka', meaning doubtful; and Skaru'ren, "hemp gatherers," i.e., the Tuscarora proper.
Villages: The following were in North Carolina, A more precise location not being possible except in the cases specified:
Contahnah, near the mouth of Neuse River.
Cotechney, on the opposite side of Neuse River from Fort Barnwell, about the mouth of Contentnea Creek.
Neoheroka, in Greene County.
Tasqui, a day's journey from Cotechney on the way to Nottaway village.
Tonarooka, on a branch of Neuse River between "Fort Narhantes" and Cotechney.
Torhunte, on a northern affluent of Neuse River.
Ucouhnerunt, on Pamlico River, probably in the vicinity of Greenville, in Pitt County.
History.—The place or manner of separation of the Tuscarora from the Iroquois tribes of New York is not known, and they were found in the tract indicated above when the country was first entered by white colonists. John Lawson, Surveyor General of North Carolina, lived in close contact with these Indians for many years and his History of Carolina gives us our earliest satisfactory picture of them. (See Lawson, 1860). It was his capture and execution by the tribe in September 1711, however which brought on the first Tuscarora War, though behind it lay a series of encroachments by the Whites on Tuscarora territory, and the kidnapping and enslavement of numbers of Indians. Immediately after Lawson's death, part of the Tuscarora, headed by Chief Hencock, and the Coree, Pamlico, Machapunga, and Bear River Indians conspired to cut off the white settlers and, in consequence, on September 22, 1711, they rose and massacred about 130 of the colonists on Trent and Pamlico Rivers. Colonel Barnwell, with 33 white men and about 500 Indians, marched against the hostiles, by direction of the colony of South Carolina, drove them from one of their towns with great loss, and invested Hencock's own town, Cotechney. But having suffered severely in two assaults upon the place and fearing lest the white captives in the hands of the Indians would be killed, he made peace and returned home. Dissatisfied with the treatment accorded him by the North Carolina authorities, however, he violated the treaty during his retreat by seizing some Indians and sending them away as slaves. This brought on the second Tuscarora War, 1712-13. South Carolina was again appealed to for assistance, and Colonel James Moore set out for the north with about 900 Indians and 33 white men, a number which was considerably swelled before he reached the seat of trouble. March 20 to 23 he stormed the palisaded town of Neoheroka, inflicting a loss upon the enemy of about 950. The Tuscarora became so terrified at this that part of them abandoned Fort Cohunche, situated at Hencock's town and started north to join their relatives, the Iroquois. This was only the beginning of the movement, bands of Tuscarora being noted at intervals as moving north or as having arrived among the Five Nations. They were adopted by the Oneida but, contrary to the general impression, were not granted coordinate rights in the League before September 1722. A part of the Tuscarora under a chief named Tom Blunt (or Blount), had, however, remained neutral. They received recognition by the government of North Carolina, and continued in their former homes under their own chiefs. In 1766, 155 removed to New York, and the 105 remaining were brought north in 1802 while a deputation of northern Tuscarora were in Carolina to obtain payment for the lands they had formerly occupied. When the Tuscarora first moved north they were settled at various places along the Susquehanna in Pennsylvania and in New York, some in the Oneida country itself. In 1875, by the treaty of Fort Herkimer, the Oneida sold to the State of New York, the lands in which their adopted children, the Tuscarora, had settled, and for a time the Tuscarora were dispersed in various settlements in New York State, and even in Pennsylvania. At the outbreak of the American Revolution, the majority of Tuscarora and Oneida espoused the cause of the colonists and in consequence they were attacked by Indians in the British interest, including even some of their Iroquois brethren, their houses were burned, their crops and other property destroyed, and they themselves scattered. A large band of them settled, however, at a place called Oyonwayea or Johnson's Landing, on Lake Ontario. Later a party from this settlement discovered a place in the northeastern part of the present Tuscarora Reservation which pleased them so much that they decided to winter there and they were presently joined by the rest of the inhabitants of Oyonwayea. At the treaty held at Genesee, September 15, 1797, between Robert Morris and the Seneca tribe, Morris reserved to the tribe, by grant, 2 square miles, covering their new settlements, and the Seneca there-upon granted them an additional square mile. As a result of their appeal to the legislature of North Carolina above mentioned, they were able to lease lands in the south, and they devoted the proceeds to the purchase of 4,329 acres adjoining their New York reserve. The Tuscarora who had sided with Great Britain were granted lands in severalty on Grand River, Ontario.
Population.—There were 5,000 Tuscarora in 1600 according to an estimate by Mooney (1928). In 1708, Lawson gives 15 towns and 1,200 warriors (Lawson, 1860). Barnwell in 1712 estimates 1,200 to 1,400 fighting men (Barnwell, 1908); Chauvignerie in 1736, 250 warriors, not including those in North Carolina, and on the Susquehanna and Juniata Rivers (Chauvignerie, in Schoolcraft, 1851-57, vol. 3, p. 556). In 1752 the southern Tuscarora were said to number 300 men; in 1754 there were said to be 100 men and 200 women and children and these figures are repeated in 1761. In 1766 there were said to be 220 to 230 all told in the south; next year we read that 155 southern Tuscarora had removed and that 105 remained. Other estimates place the total Tuscarora population at 1,000 in 1765, 2,000 in 1778, 1,000 in 1783, and 400 in 1796. In 1885 there were 828 (evenly divided between New York and Canada). In 1909 there were 364 in New York and a year later 416 in Canada, a total of 780. In 1910, 400 were reported in the United States and in 1923, 376 in New York alone. The number in Canada is not separately given.
Connection in which they have become noted.—This tribe is noted historically for its prominence among the peoples of eastern North Carolina, for the two wars which it waged with the colonists, and for the rather spectacular migration of the greater part to the north and its union with the Five Iroquois Nations. The name Tuscarora occurs applied to settlements in Frederick County, Md.; Craven County, North Carolina; Schuylkill County, Pennsylvania; Livingston County, N. Y.; Elko County, Nev.; and Ontario; and to a creek and mountain in Pennsylvania.
(Meaning unknown, but evidently a place name.)
Also called: Yeopim, a shortened and more usual form.
Connections.—The Weapemeoc were almost certainly of the Algonquian linguistic family and related to the Powhatan Indians to the north and the Chowan, Machapunga, and Pamlico to the south.
Location.—Most of the present Currituck, Camden, Pasquotank, and Perquimans Counties, and part of Chowan County north of Albemarle Sound.
Subdivisions: In the same section in later times are given the following tribes which must be regarded as subdivisions of the Weapemeoc:
Pasquotank, on Pasquotank River.
Perquiman, on Perquimans River.
Poteskeet, location uncertain. [Currituck County]
Yeopim, or Weapemeoc proper, on Yeopim River.
Chepanoc, on Albemarle Sound in Perquimans County.
Mascoming, on the north shore of Albemarle Sound, in Chowan County.
Metachkwem, location unknown.
Pasquenock, perhaps identical with Pasquotank, on the north shore of Albemarle Sound, perhaps in Camden County.
Weapemeoc, probably in Pasquotank County.
History.—The Weapemeoc first appear in history in the narratives of the Raleigh colony of 1585-86. Later they are spoken of under the various subdivisional names. They parted with some of their land in 1662. In 1701, according to Lawson (1860) only 6 of the Yeopim survived though there were 40 warriors of the other subdivisions, including 10 Pasquotank and 30 Potekeet.
Population.—In the time of the Raleigh colony the Weapemeoc are said to have had between 700 and 800 warriors. They were estimated by Mooney (1928) at 800 in 1600. From their number as given by Lawson in 1701 Rights (1947) estimates 200 at that date.
Connection in which they have become noted.—In the form Yeopim the name has been preserved in that of a railroad station in Perquimans County, N. C.
Connections.—The Woccon belonged to the Siouan linguistic stock, their closest relations being the Catawba.
Location.—Between Neuse River and one of its affluents, perhaps about the present Goldsboro, Wayne County.
Tooptatmeer, supposed to have been in Greene County.
Yupwauremau, supposed to have been in Greene County.
History.—The first mention of the Woccon appears to be by Lawson writing about 1701, who recorded 150 words of their language. These show that it was nearer Catawba than any other known variety of speech. Lack of any earlier mention of such a large tribe lends strength to the theory of Dr. Douglas L. Rights that they were originally Waccamaw. They took part against the Whites in the Tuscarora Wars and were probably extinguished as a tribe at that time, the remnant fleeing north with the Tuscarora, uniting with the Catawba, or combining with other Siouan remnants in the people later known as Croatan.
Population.—The number of Woccon was estimated by Mooney (1928) at 600 in 1600. Lawson (1860) gives 120 warriors in 1709.
Connection in which they have become noted.—The sole claim of the Woccon to distinction is from the fact that it is the only one of the southern group of eastern Siouan tribes other than the Catawba from which a vocabulary has been preserved.
Connections.—The Meherrin belonged to the Iroquoian linguistic family, their closest connections probably being the Nottaway.
Location.—Along the river of the same name on the Virginia-North Carolina border.
History.—The tribal name Meherrin first appears in the form "Maharineck" in the account of an expedition by Edward Blande and others to North Carolina in 1650, and next in an Indian census taken in 1669. Later they seem to have adopted a body of Conestoga or Susquehanna fleeing from Pennsylvania after their dispersal by the Iroquois about 1675. This is the only way to account for the fact that they are all said to have been refugee Conestoga. They were living on Roanoke River in 1761 with the southern bands of Tuscarora and Saponi, and the Machapunga, and probably went north in the last Tuscarora removal in 1802. (For information regarding another possible band of Meherrin see Nottaway below)
Population.—Mooney (1928) estimates the Meherrin population at 700 in 1600. In 1669 they are said to have had 50 bowmen, or approximately 180 souls. In 1755 they were said to be reduced to 7 or 8 fighting men, but in 1761 they are reported to have had 20.
Connection in which they have become noted.—Meherrin River, an affluent of the Chowan, running through southern Virginia and north-eastern North Carolina, and a Virginia town perpetuate the name of the Meherrin.
"adders," in the language of their Algonquian neighbors, a common
designation for alien tribes by peoples of that linguistic stock.)
Cheroenhaka, their own name, probably signifying "fork of a stream."
Mangoak, Mengwe, another Algonquian term, signifying "stealthy," "treacherous."
Connections.—The Nottaway belonged to the Iroquoian linguistic family, their closest connections probably being the Meherrin, Tuscarora, and Susquehanna.
Location.—On the river of the same name in southeastern Virginia.
History.—The Nottaway were found by the Virginia colonists in the location given above. Though they were never prominent in colonial history, they kept up their organization long after the other tribes of the region were practically extinct. In 1825 they are mentioned as living on a reservation in Southampton County and ruled over by a "queen." The name of this tribe was also applied to a band of Indians which appeared on the northern frontiers of South Carolina between 1748 and 1754. They may have included those Susquehanna who are sometimes confounded with the Meherrin, and are more likely to have included Meherrin than true Nottaway although they retained the name of the latter (see Swanton, 1946).
Population.—The number of Nottaway, exclusive of those last mentioned, was estimated by Mooney (1928) at 1,500 in the year 1600. In 1709 Lawson reported one town with 30 fighting men, but in 1827 Byrd estimated that there were 300 Nottaway in Virginia. In 1825, 47 were reported. The band that made its appearance on the frontiers of South Carolina was said to number about 300.
Connection in which they have become noted.—The name of the Nottaway is preserved by Nottoway River, Nottoway County, and two towns, one the county seat of the above, the other in Sussex county. There is a Nottawa in St. Joseph County, Mich.
(Said by Gerard to signify "falls in a current of water," and applied originally to one tribe but extended by the English to its chief Wahunsonacock, and through him to the body of tribes which came under his sway.)
Sachdagugh-roonaw, Iroquois name.
Connections.—The Powhatan belonged to the Algonquian linguistic stock, their nearest relatives probably being the Algonquian tribes of Carolina and the Conoy.
Location.—In the tidewater section of Virginia from Potomac River to the divide between James River and Albemarle Sound, and the territory of the present eastern shore of Virginia.
Subdivisions: Subtribes constituting this group are as follows:
Accohanoc, in Accomac and part of Northampton Counties, Va., and probably extending slightly into Maryland.
Accomac, in the southern part of Northampton County, Va.
Appomattoc, in Chesterfield County.
Arrohattoc, in Henrico County.
* Chesapeake, in Princess Anne County.
Chickahominy, on Chickahominy River.
Chiskiac, in York County.
Cuttatawomen, in King George County.
Kecoughtan, in Elizabeth City County.
Mattapony on Mattapony River.
Moraughtacund, in Lancaster and Richmond Counties.
Mummapacune, on York River.
Nansemond, in Nansemond County.
Nantaughtacund, in Essex and Caroline Counties.
Onawmanient, in Westmoreland County.
Pamunkey, in King William County.
Paspahegh, in Charles City and James City Counties.
Pataunck, on Pamunkey River.
Piankatank, on Piankatank River.
Pissasee, in King George and Westmoreland Counties.
Potomac, in Stafford and King George Counties.
Powhatan, in Henrico County.
Rappahannock, in Richmond County.
Secacawoni, in Northumberland County.
Tauxenent, in Fairfax County.
Warrasqueoc, in Isle of Wight County.
Weanoe, in Charles City County.
Werowocomoco, in Gloucester County.
Wicocomoco, in Northumberland County.
Youghtanund, on Pamunkey River.
* Chesapeake may have been more closely associated with the Carolina Algonkians than with the Powhatans.
Accohanoc, on the river of the same name in Accomac or Northampton Counties.
Accomac, according to Jefferson (1801), about Cheriton, on Cherrystone Inlet, Northampton County.
Acconoc, between Chickahominy and Pamunkey Rivers, in New Kent County.
Accoqueck, on Rappahannock River, above Secobec, in Caroline County.
Accossuwinck, on Pamunkey River, King William County.
Acquack, on the north bank of Rappahannock River, in Caroline County.
Appamattoc, on the site of Bermuda Hundred, in Prince George County.
Appocant, on the north bank of Chickahominy River, in New Kent County.
Arrohattoc, in Henrico County on the James River, 12 miles below the falls at Richmond.
Askakep, near Pamunkey River in New Kent County.
Assaomeck, near Alexandria.
Assuweska, on the north bank of the Rappahannock in King George County.
Attamtuck, between the Chickahominy and Pamunkey Rivers in New Kent County.
Aubomesk, on the north bank of the Rappahannock in Richmond County.
Aureuapeugh, on Rappahannock River in Essex County.
Cantaunkack, on York River in Gloucester County.
Capahowasic, about Cappahosic in Gloucester County.
Cattachiptico, on Pamunkey River in King William County.
Cawwontoll, on the north bank of the Rappahannock River in Richmond County.
Chawopo, at the mouth of Chipoak Creek, Surry County.
Checopissowo, on Rappahannock River above Tobacco Greek, in Caroline County.
Chesakawon, above the mouth of Corotoman River, in Lancaster County.
Chesapeake, according to Jefferson on Linnhaven River in Princess Anne County a small stream flowing north into Chesapeake Bay.
Chiconessex, about Wiseville, in Accomac County.
Chincoteague, about Chincoteague Inlet, in Accomac County.
Chiskiac, on the south side of York River, about 10 miles below the junction of the Mattapony and Pamunkey.
Cinquack, near Smiths Point on the Potomac, in Northumberland County.
Cinquoteck, in the fork of Mattapony and Pamunkey Rivers, in King William County.
Cuttatawomen, (1) on the Rappahannock River at Corotoman River in Lancaster County; (2) about Lamb Creek on the Rappahannock, in King George County.
Gangasco, near Eastville, in Northampton County.
Kapawnich, on the north bank of the Rappahannock, about Corotoman River in Lancaster County.
Kerahocak, on the north bank of the Rappahannock River in King George County.
Kiequotank, on the eastern shore of Accomac County, north of Metomkin.
Kupkipcock, on Pamunkey River in King William County.
Machapunga, (l) in Northampton County; (2) on Potomac River.
Mamanahunt, on Chickahominy River, in Charles City County.
Mamanassy, at the junction of Pamunkey and Mattapony Rivers in King and Queen County.
Mangoraca, on the north bank of the Rappahannock in Richmond County.
Mantoughquemec, on Nansemond River, in Nansemond County.
Martoughquaunk, on Mattapony River in Caroline County.
Massawoteck, on the north bank of Rappahannock River in King George County.
Matchopick, on the north bank of the Rappahannock River in Richmond County.
Matchut, on Pamunkey River, in New Kent County.
Mathomauk, on the west bank of James River, in Isle of Wight County.
Matomkin, about Metomkin Inlet in Accomac County.
Mattacock, on the north bank of York River in Gloucester County.
Mattacunt, on the south side of Potomac River in King George County.
Mattanock, on the west side of Nansemond River, near its mouth, in Nansemond County.
Maysonec, on the north bank of the Chickahominy in New Kent County.
Menacupunt, on Pamunkey River, in King William County.
Menaskunt, on the north bank of Rappahannock River in Richmond County.
Meyascosic, on the north side of James River in Charles City County.
Mohominge, near the falls of James River, in Richmond County.
Mokete, on Warrasqueoc Creek, in Isle of Wight County.
Moraughtacund, near the mouth of Moratico River in Richmond County.
Mouanast, on the north bank of Rappahannock River, in King George County.
Mutchut, on the north bank of the Mattapony River in King and Queen County.
Muttamussinsack, on the north bank of Rappahannock River in Caroline County.
Myghtuckpassu, on the south bank of Mattapony River in King William County.
Namassingakent, on the south bank of Potomac River in Fairfax County.
Nameroughquena, on the south bank of the Potomac River in Alexandria County, opposite Washington, D. C.
Nansemond, probably about Chuckatuck in Nansemond County.
Nantapoyac, on the south bank of James River in Surry County.
Nantaughtacund, on the south side of the Rappahannock River in either Essex County or Caroline County.
Nawacaten, on the north bank of the Rappahannock River in Richmond County.
Nawnautough, on the north bank of the Rappahannock River in Richmond County.
Nechanicok, on the south bank of the Chickahominy in the lower part of Henrico County.
Nepawtacum, on the north bank of the Rappahannock in Lancaster County.
Onancock, near Onancock in Accomac County.
Onawmanient, probably on Nominy Bay, in Westmoreland County.
Opiscopank, on the south bank of the Rappahannock River in Middlesex County.
Oquomock, on the north bank of the Rappahannock River in Richmond County.
Orapaks, in New Kent County, between the Chickahominy and Pamunkey Rivers.
Ottachugh, on the north bank of the Rappahannock River in Lancaster County.
Ozatawomen, on the south bank of the Potomac River in King George County.
Ozenic, on Chickahominy River in New Kent County.
Pamawauk, perhaps identical with Pamunkey.
Pamuncoroy, on the south bank of Pamunkey River in New Kent County.
Pamunkey, probably near West Point in King William County.
Papiscone, on the north bank of the Rappahannock in King George County.
Pasaugtacock, on the north bank of York River in King and Queen County.
Paspahegh, (1) on the south bank of Chickahominy River in Charles City County; (2) on the north bank of James River in Charles City County.
Passaunkack, on the south bank of Mattapony River in the northwestern part of King William County.
Pastanza, on or near Potomac River, possibly on Aquia Creek, in Stafford County.
Pawcocomac, on the north bank of Rappahannock River at the mouth of the Corotoman in Lancaster County.
Peccarecamek, an Indian settlement reported on the southern Virginia border, perhaps mythical.
Pemacocack, on the west bank of Potomac River in Prince William County about 30 miles below Alexandria.
Piankatank, on Piankatank River in Middlesex County.
Pissacoac, On the north bank of Rappahannock River above Leedstown in Westmoreland County.
Poruptanck, on the north bank of York River in Gloucester County.
Potaucac, in New Kent County between the Chickahominy and Pamunkey Rivers.
Potomac, about 55 miles in a straight line from Chesapeake Bay, on a peninsula in what is now Stafford County, formed by Potomac River and Potomac Creek.
Powcomonet, on the north bank of Rappahannock River in Richmond County.
Powhatan, on the north bank of James River at the falls on ground now forming an eastern suburb of Richmond.
Poyektauk, on the north bank of Rappahannock River in Richmond County.
Poykemkack, on the north bank of Rappahannock River in Richmond County.
Pungoteque, in Accomac County, probably near Metomkin Inlet.
Quackcohowaon, on the south bank of the Mattapony in King William County.
Quioucohanock, probably on an eminence now called Wharf Bluff just east of Upper Chipoak Creek in Surry County.
Quiyough, on the south bank of Aquia Creek near its mouth, in Stafford County.
Rappahannock, at the mouth of a creek on Rappahannock River in Richmond County.
Rickahake, probably in Norfolk County.
Righkahauk, on the west bank of Chickahominy River in New Kent County.
Ritanoe, probably Powhatan, in Virginia or North Carolina.
Roscows, in Elizabeth City County.
Secacawoni, at the mouth of Coan Creek on the south bank of the Potomac in Northumberland County.
Secobeck, on the south bank of Rappahannock River in Caroline County.
Shamapa, on Pamunkey or York River.
Sockobeck, on the north bank of Rappahannock River in King George County.
Tantucquask, on Rappahannock River in Richmond County.
Tauxenent, about Mount Vernon in Fairfax County.
Teracosick, on the west bank of Nansemond River in Nansemond County.
Utenstank, on the north bank of Mattapony River in Caroline County.
Uttamussac, on the north bank of Pamunkey River in King William County.
Uttamussamacoma, on the south bank of Potomac River in Westmoreland County.
Waconiask, on the north bank of Rappahannock River in King George County.
Warrasqueoc, on the south bank of James River at the mouth of Warrasqueoc Creek in Isle of Wight County.
Weanoc, below the mouth of Appamattox River at the present Weyanoke in Prince George County.
Wecuppom, on the north bank of Rappahannock River in Richmond County.
Werawahon, on the north bank of Chickahominy River in New Kent County.
Werowacomoco, on the north bank of York River in Gloucester County about opposite the mouth of Queen Creek.
Wicocomoco, at the mouth of Wicomico River in Northumberland County.
Winsack, on the north bank of Rappahannock River in Richmond County.
History.—The Powhatan were visited by some very early explorers, including probably the Cabots in 1498. Their territory was well known to the Spaniards in the latter part of the sixteenth century and a Jesuit mission was established among them in 1570 though soon extinguished by the Indians. In 1607 the Virginia colony was planted on James River and from that time on relations between the Whites and Powhatans were of the most intimate character, friendly at first, but later disturbed by the exactions of the newcomers. Peace was restored for a lime by the marriage of Powhatan's daughter Pocahontas to John Rolfe, and lasted until Powhatan's death in 1618. In 1622 Powhatan's second successor, Opechancanough, led an uprising against the colonists, as a result of which all of the White settlements except those immediately about Jamestown were destroyed. War continued until 1636 when exhaustion of both sides led to peace, but in 1644 Opechancanough led another uprising as destructive as the first. He was captured and was killed the same year. The tribes made peace separately, and they were placed upon reservations, where they gradually dwindled away. In 1654 or 1656 the Pamunkey assisted the English in resisting an invasion of some inland people, but the allied army was severely defeated. In 1675 these Indians were accused of having committed certain depredations, really caused by the Conestoga, and several unauthorized expeditions were led against them by Nathaniel Bacon. In August 1676 a great body of them gathered in a fort near Richmond which was carried by storm, and men, women, and children indiscriminately massacred. Peace was made with the survivors on condition that an annual tribute be paid by each village. In 1722 in a treaty made at Albany between the English and Iroquois, the latter agreed to cease their attacks upon the Powhatan Indians, but the Powhatans already had been greatly reduced and they continued to decline. Those on the eastern shore of Virginia, who had become very much mixed with Negroes, were driven away in 1831 during the excitement caused by the slave rising under Nat Turner. In 1785 Jefferson reported the Powhatan Indians reduced to two tribes, the Pamunkey and Mattapony, embracing only about 15 men, but he must have overlooked great numbers of these Indians, for at the present time there are several bands, including the Chickahominy, Nansemond, Pamunkey, Mattapony, Upper Mattapony, Rappahannock, Wicocomoco, Potomac, Powhatan, and Werowocomoco (Speck, 1925).
Population.—The Powhatan population was estimated by Mooney (1928) as 9,000 in 1600; Smith (1884) allows them 2,400 warriors; in 1669 a census gave 528 warriors or about 2,000 population, the Wicocomoco being then the largest tribe. In 1705 the Pamunkey by themselves numbered 150 souls. Jefferson in 1785 represented the two tribes which he mentions as having but 15 men; Mooney, however, believed that there must have been a population of something like 1,000 because of the number of mixed-bloods still surviving. The census of 1910 returned 115 Chickahominy and 85 Pamunkey. The United States Office of Indian Affairs Report for 1923 includes still other bands, giving in all a population of 822, and Speck (1925) gives the names of 10 bands aggregating 2,118 in 1923. The census of 1930 returned only 203 Indians from Virginia but evidently missed nearly all except the Pamunkey.
Connection in which they have become noted.—The Powhatan Confederacy is famous as embracing those Indians among whom the first permanent English settlement in North America was made; for the personal character of its chief, Powhatan, who had conquered about 24 tribes, in addition to the 6 under him at his accession, before the appearance of the Europeans; on account of the dealings of the Whites with both Powhatan and his brother Opechancanough, as well as the massacre of the settlers by the latter in 1622 and again in 1644; and not least from the fame attached to Powhatan's daughter, Pocahontas. There are post villages named Powhatan in Jefferson County, Ala.; Lawrence County, Ark.; Natchitoches Parish, La.; McDowell County, W. Va.; a county and county seat of the name in Virginia; Powhatan Point in Belmont County, Ohio; and Powhattan in Brown County, Kans.
[Note: I have omitted here the tribes of North Carolina from the Piedmont and Mountain areas who were not close associates or neighbors of the Algonkians, and I have included several tribal groups from Virginia who lived in close proximity with the Carolina Algonkian.]
For the full list of Noth Carolina tribes,
The Indian Tribes of North America by John R. Swanton: North Carolina (Html), or
The Indian Tribes of North America by John R. Swanton: North Carolina (Text).
Courtesy of Smithsonian Institution
Source: Extracts from The Indian Tribes of North America by John R. Swanton; Bureau of American Ethnology Bulletin 145, 1953; Smithsonian Institution; (pp. 61-90). North Carolina (Partial), Virginia (Partial).
Carolina Algonkian Project