ARCHAEOLOGY OF THE
THE CAROLINA ALGONKIANS
REPORTS, PRODUCTIONS AND EXHIBITS
This section of the report summarizes the various methods of dissemination of information about the Carolina Algonkians and their relationship to the 400th Anniversary, thus addressing a third goal of the project during this year.
Activities related to this grant during the year have been summarized in three quarterly and the final reports. The three quarterly reports have been submitted to AFHAC as required, and have also been shared with other researchers and scholars concerned with the period (David Quinn, National Park Service Archaeologists and Fort Raleigh staff, and others) since the reports contained pertinent new information. The quarterly reports were submitted on:
July 15, 1983 - First Quarterly Report, 10 pp.
December 9, 1983 - Second Quarterly Report, 13 pp.
March 1, 1984 - Third Quarterly Report, 5 pp.
The Final Report is herewith submitted as required by the grant agreement.
A special report (11 pages) summarizing grant activities and results from May 15 - October 31, 1983, was requested by the Chairman of the Archaeology Subcommittee, AFRAC, and was submitted to him on November 1, 1983, as part of the annual report to the Z. Smith Reynolds Foundation. (Page 27)
The one published report required this year is the study of the Tillett site at Wanchese on Roanoke Island. The title of the report is:
"Archaeology of the Tillett Site: The First Fishing Community at Wanchese on Roanoke Island." East Carolina University Archaeological Research Report No. 6.
A slide/narrative presentation, entitled "The Carolina Algonkians: Archaeology and History," has been produced and reviewed by the AFRAC and Archaeology Branch, N.C. Division of Archives and History. The production contains 115 color slides of archaeological sites, features, burials, and artifacts, as well as slides of selected John White paintings, maps and other visual aids. The narrative has been transcribed on tape and runs for approximately 20 minutes, and script copies have also been provided for those situations where tape recorders might not be available.
The Traveling Artifact Exhibit
Designed to complement the slide/narrative presentation when accompanying it, or to stand alone as a supplementary display, the traveling exhibit entitled "Artifacts of the Carolina Algonkians" contains a representative range of cultural material typical of the 16th century. The display case measures 2.5' x 2.5' when closed and opens to a full width of 5' in its viewing position (Figure 15, upper). Its construction is sufficiently durable to withstand the rigors of three years of travel during the 400th Anniversary commemoration period, but the unit is relatively easily handled. The case was constructed by the East Carolina University Maintenance Division Carpentry Shop, and the display designed and constructed by the project director and his staff at the Archaeology Laboratory. A small panel in the lower right corner of the exhibit gives sponsor and funding credit to the American Quadricentennial Corporation and the Z. Smith Reynolds Foundation. Loan and travel arrangements for the exhibit are to be the responsibility of the 400th Anniversary staff at the N.C. Division of Archives and History, and a loan agreement for the artifacts has been made with the Executive Director, AFHAC. Preview showings of the traveling exhibit at the N.C. Museum of History in Raleigh on March 9 and at the Carolina East Mall, Greenville, on March 16 in conjunction with the Greenville Area Girl Scouts 400th Anniversary activities, met with favorable comments. The exhibit is now at the Museum of the Albemarle, Elizabeth City.
Artifacts in the exhibit include typical specimens of.the distinctive shell-tempered Colington ceramics, made by the Carolina Algonkian potters from A.D. 800 into the 17th century, with typical surface finishes and decorative designs; a ceramic obtuse-angle smoking pipe of the type which became the model for later European pipe designs; a stone (jasper) knife typical of the coastal area, stone axe (celt), a hammer used in production of stone tools, and triangular arrow points (Figure 15, lower left). In the other (Page 28) side of the case (Figure 15, lower right) are a fragment of charred grass (Juncus roemerianus) mat of the type used to cover the houses and as mats upon which to eat and sit, along with a drawing showing the reconstructed mat; a whelk shell weight for fishing nets; shell beads, including the popular marginella shell beads used extensively in trade (these are the type sewn onto Powhatan's "mantle" or cloak preserved in the Ashmolean Museum) and disc-, barrel- and tubular-shaped beads, the latter two most well known as "peak" and "Roanoak" in the Colonial period exchange system; a sewing tool (awl), antler tip for flaking stone, and hair and clothing pins made of bone; and a sample of red ochre, one of the pigments used to produce red paints and dyes.
A sample of Colington phase artifacts, photographs and descriptions were preserved and reconstructed and have been placed on long-term loan to the Elizabeth 11 State Historic Site, Manteo, for their visitor center museum display on the Carolina Algonkians.
Preliminary discussions have been held with the North Carolina Museum of History for the loan of artifacts from our collections for their Carolina Algonkian exhibit next year (1985).
PROFESSIONAL AND PUBLIC PRESENTATIONS
An important aspect of the 400- Anniversary and a goal of this grant is the dissemination of information directly to professional and public audiences. While none of us were quite prepared for the number of requests for public presentations in particular, every effort was made to honor requests when scheduling made it possible. Three types of presentations are listed below: 1) Professional papers which either in whole or in part included information and ideas generated by this project or reported preliminary results of the research; 2) Formal lectures on the Carolina Algonkians to specific theme groups or symposia; and 3) brief popular talks to civic, school and historical groups.
Professional Papers and Reports of Research
By Project Director:
North Carolina Archaeological Council Meeting, Manteo, November 29, 1984.
Middle Atlantic Archaeological Conference, Rehoboth Beach, Delaware, April 14, 1984.
Archaeological Society of North Carolina, Chapel Hill, October 22, 1984. (Page 30)
Formal Lectures and Symposia
By Project Director:
UNC Sea Grant 400 th Anniversary Workshop for Teachers, Manteo, July, 1983. (Follow-up work day in Raleigh, October 9, 1983)
Annual Symposium on History and Social Studies, East Carolina University, Greenville, September 28, 1983.
Atlantic Christian College Annual History and Social Studies Lecture, Wilson, November 1, 1983.
ECU Chapter of Sigma Xi, Scientific Research Fraternity, Greenville, December 8, 1983.
Wake Forest University Museum of Man, Native American 400th Anniversary Lecture, January 26 1984.
North Carolina Museum of History, 400th Anniversary Lecture series: at Raleigh, March 6, 1984. at Elizabeth City, March 13, 1984.
North Carolina Museums Conference Spring Meeting, keynote address, Greensboro, April 16, 1984.
Murfreesboro Humanities Symposiuw, Murfreesboro, April 24, 1984.
Edenton Biennial Symposium, 400 t Anniversary theme, Edenton, May 17, 1984.
By Project Director:
Murfreesboro Historical Association, June, 1983
Harrellsville Histor cal Association, July, 1983
Hertford County 400 t@ Anniversary Committee, June, 1983
Perquimans County High School (2 lectures), September 5, 1983
Pitt County Historical Association, October 18, 1983
Roanoke Island Historical Association and County Chairpersons of 400th Anniversary, banquet address; Manteo, October 21, 1983.
Greenville Area Girl Scout Leaders, November 9, 1983.
Harrellsville Historical Association, January 12, 1984
Ahoskie Rotary Club, January 16, 1984
Ahoskie Women's Club, January 18, 1984
Greenville Kiwanis Club, February 1, 1984
Franklin, Virginia, Rotary Club, February 17, 1984
Washington Rotary Club, March 1, 1984
Greenville Excnange Club, April 26, 1984
Greenville Noon Rotary Club, April 30, 1984
Southwood Elementary School, Kinston, January 25, 1984
Ridgecroft School, Hertford County, March 19, 1984 (Page 31)
Demonstrations and advice in preparing exhibits for the Greenville Area Girl Scouts 400th Anniversary Exhibit, March 17, 1984, was provided at the Archaeology Laboratory on February 9, 16, 21 and 22 for various Scout Troops and Leaders. (Page 32)
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