The Roanoke Voyages
by David Beers Quinn
Footnotes to Document 30 (pp. 216-17)
1. P.R.O., Maps and Plans G.
584 (fig. 3). Formerly C.O. 1/5. 42 (II), there was no justification for
linking it with a letter from John Smith to Francis Bacon, Lord Verulam,
in 1618, as a contemporary
map of English discoveries. Alexander Brown accepted it as such and printed
a version in Genesis of
the United States, I, 596. A reasonable assumption is that it was sent
by Lane to Walsingham with no.
29 above, and that it remained among his papers with nos. 25-27, 29 and
34 until the State Papers
were redistributed in the nineteenth century.
2. This is the Spanish name for
Chesapeake Bay (cp. pp. 502-3 below), and it suggests that Grenville
had with him a Spanish map. Lane had made a similar reference (p. 201 above).
It was here the Tiger
went aground. (cp. pp. 189, 201).
3. This island is in a position
corresponding to its location on White’s maps, cp. pp. 460-2, 867 below.
4. Probably here Dogwood, Cornus
florida, which still grows near Cape Hatteras: ‘from the bark of
the fibrous roots the indians extracted a scarlet color soluble in water
alone’ (Porcher, Resources,
PP. 64-5). Aubry and Boniten went to Croatoan Island on 6 July, returning
on the 8th, and they may
have brought the roots back with them.
5. The pinnace and three boats
sailed from Wococon on 11 July, reaching Pomeiooc on the 12th (p.
191 above). The ring around the village site indicates that it was palisaded
as it appears in White’s
drawing (no. 33, see pp. 415-17 below), which was probably made by him
on this location. The rough
markings behind the village represents the Lake Paquippe which was exaggerated
on White’s map
(cp. p. 191 above, and pp. 461, 870 below).
6. It was apparently on 15 July
that Grenville and his party ascended the Pamlico River. They would
naturally take soundings such as this as they went.
7. The party spent 15-16 July
in the village. Its location here is probably the correct one, that on
White’s maps being confused (cp. pp. 461, 871). The village is shown unenclosed
as in White’s
drawing (no. 37 see pp. 420-3 below). A substancial number of other drawings
(nos. 38-44, see pp.
423-32 below) were also made (or probably made) by him on this visit. They
8. The boats turned back down
the Pamlico River on the 16th, detaching that under Amadas to
return to Aquascogoc (p. 191 above), the others continued to explore rather
cursorily the river
estauries to the south of them. Manteo is likely to have been their informant
about Nesioke (cp.
Barlowe , p. 113 above), which appears in White’s maps as Newasiwac. This
visit was probably
the only basis for White’s mapping of the Neuse River estuary.
9. This records the entry of
the boats into Core Sound as their last place of call before returning
to Wococon on the 18th. Warrea is probably Cwarreuuoc of the White-de Bry
map (pp. 462, 872
below) or another village of the Coree tribe, also Hakluyt’s Waten (p.
10. Roanoke Island, the king
being Wingina, and word of their arrival having been sent to him
on 3 July (p. 189 above).
11. These are quite likely to
have been oak-galls useful in tanning. If not, it might be suggested
that they were specimens of American Century, Sabbatia angularis,
or even White’s Rosegentian,
Sabbatia stellaris (cp. p. 447 below), since the English Lesser
Centaury was known as Gall for its
bitterness and was prized for its medicinal uses (cp. Porcher, Resources,
pp. 554-7), though such
an interpretation would be highly speculative. It is worth making only
as oaks were so abundant
that the noting of oak-galls here would not appear specially intelligent.
12. For these small islands in
Croatan Sound see pp. 862-3 below. Lane had already mentioned milk-
grass to the elder Hakluyt (p. 207 above), but they were several plants
so described (cp. pp. 325-6
below). Here a yucca, Bear Grass, Yucca filameniosa (the most likely),
Spanish Bayonet, Y. gloriosa,
or Spanish Dagger, Y. aloifolia, all yielding fibre, is meant (cp.
J.K. Small, Manual of the south-
eastern flora, pp. 302-4). 13. Amadas had been sent up Albemarle Sound
to Weapemeoc on 2 August
(p. 192 above), and had by the implications of Lane’s letter, returned
by 8 Setemper (p. 212-14 above).
The sketch-map shows that besides discovering fish he had oulined fully
the shape of the Sound with
the two main inlets to it, the Roanoke and Chowan Rivers, at its western
end. He may even have
penetrated into Chowanoac territory, but this is not proven from this map.
14. De Bry marks grapes in a
similar place (p. 413 below). These were either the small sweet
Summer Grapes, ripening in July and August, or the large sweet Muscadine
Grapes, which come in
in September (cp. p. 330). Lane had already mentioned them in his letter
to Hakluyt (p. 207 above).
The two estuaries entering the Sound on the north are possibly the Perquimans
and Little Rivers,
though the two villages marked are not easy to identify from the other
maps (cp. pp. 461, 860-1
below). They are unnamed, but distinquished by circles, presumably to indicate
that they were
palisaded villages like Pomeiooc. There is no indication elsewhere that
the Weapemeoc tribe
adopted this practice.
15. This is the earliest English
map of North America made from direct observation and has some
connections with De Bry’s engraving (p. 413 below). Its watermark (entwined
columns) is one
appropriate to the year 1585. (Cp. C.M. Briquet, Les filigranes
(2nd ed. 1923), nos. 4432-4437:
French paper in use c. 1580-90.)