1985-1986 Field Seasons

Figure 3: Early Sketch Map of the Carolina Sounds

3. Sketch-map of Raleigh's Virginia [September, 1585].

The Roanoke Voyages
by David Beers Quinn

Footnotes to Document 30 (pp. 216-17)

1. P.R.O., Maps and Plans G. 584 (fig. 3). Formerly C.O. 1/5. 42 (II), there was no justification for
linking it with a letter from John Smith to Francis Bacon, Lord Verulam, in 1618, as a contemporary
map of English discoveries. Alexander Brown accepted it as such and printed a version in Genesis of
the United States
, I, 596. A reasonable assumption is that it was sent by Lane to Walsingham with no.
29 above, and that it remained among his papers with nos. 25-27, 29 and 34 until the State Papers
were redistributed in the nineteenth century.

2. This is the Spanish name for Chesapeake Bay (cp. pp. 502-3 below), and it suggests that Grenville
had with him a Spanish map. Lane had made a similar reference (p. 201 above). It was here the Tiger
went aground. (cp. pp. 189, 201).

3. This island is in a position corresponding to its location on White’s maps, cp. pp. 460-2, 867 below.

4. Probably here Dogwood, Cornus florida, which still grows near Cape Hatteras: ‘from the bark of
the fibrous roots the indians extracted a scarlet color soluble in water alone’ (Porcher, Resources,
PP. 64-5). Aubry and Boniten went to Croatoan Island on 6 July, returning on the 8th, and they may
have brought the roots back with them.

5. The pinnace and three boats sailed from Wococon on 11 July, reaching Pomeiooc on the 12th (p.
191 above). The ring around the village site indicates that it was palisaded as it appears in White’s
drawing (no. 33, see pp. 415-17 below), which was probably made by him on this location. The rough
markings behind the village represents the Lake Paquippe which was exaggerated on White’s map
(cp. p. 191 above, and pp. 461, 870 below).

6. It was apparently on 15 July that Grenville and his party ascended the Pamlico River. They would
naturally take soundings such as this as they went.

7. The party spent 15-16 July in the village. Its location here is probably the correct one, that on
White’s maps being confused (cp. pp. 461, 871). The village is shown unenclosed as in White’s
drawing (no. 37 see pp. 420-3 below). A substancial number of other drawings (nos. 38-44, see pp.
423-32 below) were also made (or probably made) by him on this visit. They were hospitably

8. The boats turned back down the Pamlico River on the 16th, detaching that under Amadas to
return to Aquascogoc (p. 191 above), the others continued to explore rather cursorily the river
estauries to the south of them. Manteo is likely to have been their informant about Nesioke (cp.
Barlowe , p. 113 above), which appears in White’s maps as Newasiwac. This visit was probably
the only basis for White’s mapping of the Neuse River estuary.

9. This records the entry of the boats into Core Sound as their last place of call before returning
to Wococon on the 18th. Warrea is probably Cwarreuuoc of the White-de Bry map (pp. 462, 872
below) or another village of the Coree tribe, also Hakluyt’s Waten (p. 765 below).

10. Roanoke Island, the king being Wingina, and word of their arrival having been sent to him
on 3 July (p. 189 above).

11. These are quite likely to have been oak-galls useful in tanning. If not, it might be suggested
that they were specimens of American Century, Sabbatia angularis, or even White’s Rosegentian,
Sabbatia stellaris (cp. p. 447 below), since the English Lesser Centaury was known as Gall for its
bitterness and was prized for its medicinal uses (cp. Porcher, Resources, pp. 554-7), though such
an interpretation would be highly speculative. It is worth making only as oaks were so abundant
that the noting of oak-galls here would not appear specially intelligent.

12. For these small islands in Croatan Sound see pp. 862-3 below. Lane had already mentioned milk-
grass to the elder Hakluyt (p. 207 above), but they were several plants so described (cp. pp. 325-6
below). Here a yucca, Bear Grass, Yucca filameniosa (the most likely), Spanish Bayonet, Y. gloriosa,
or Spanish Dagger, Y. aloifolia, all yielding fibre, is meant (cp. J.K. Small, Manual of the south-
eastern flora
, pp. 302-4). 13. Amadas had been sent up Albemarle Sound to Weapemeoc on 2 August
(p. 192 above), and had by the implications of Lane’s letter, returned by 8 Setemper (p. 212-14 above).
The sketch-map shows that besides discovering fish he had oulined fully the shape of the Sound with
the two main inlets to it, the Roanoke and Chowan Rivers, at its western end. He may even have
penetrated into Chowanoac territory, but this is not proven from this map.

14. De Bry marks grapes in a similar place (p. 413 below). These were either the small sweet
Summer Grapes, ripening in July and August, or the large sweet Muscadine Grapes, which come in
in September (cp. p. 330). Lane had already mentioned them in his letter to Hakluyt (p. 207 above).
The two estuaries entering the Sound on the north are possibly the Perquimans and Little Rivers,
though the two villages marked are not easy to identify from the other maps (cp. pp. 461, 860-1
below). They are unnamed, but distinquished by circles, presumably to indicate that they were
palisaded villages like Pomeiooc. There is no indication elsewhere that the Weapemeoc tribe
adopted this practice.

15. This is the earliest English map of North America made from direct observation and has some
connections with De Bry’s engraving (p. 413 below). Its watermark (entwined columns) is one
appropriate to the year 1585. (Cp. C.M. Briquet, Les filigranes (2nd ed. 1923), nos. 4432-4437:
French paper in use c. 1580-90.)

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Carolina Algonkian Project, All Rights Reserved