North Carolina 1861-1865
North Carolina's military contribution during the Civil War has been difficult to decipher from the mass of records. Researchers find it hard to trace units from the State because of numerous and confusing designations. As battalions and regiments were organized and mustered into service, they we r e given a line-number. These numbers ran consecutively. At the same time the battalion or regiment would receive a numerical designation according to its branch of service, or the nature and character of its organization. As usual, there were exceptions to this rule, and these are explained below. Add to the confusion created by double numerical designations, the Local Designations and names of commanding officers and the picture becomes more complex.
In 1903 the United States Government began to compile a service record for each Confederate soldier. Information pertaining to him was copied from Muster Rolls and other original records. In conjunction with the project three of the following tables were compiled. The fourth, "Union Regiments," was compiled from records on file at the National Archives. These tables are necessarily incomplete because the original compilers were limited to records on loan to and in possession of the Federal Government. Additions have been made.
When the war broke out, the only military organization in the State, aside from a few volunteer companies, was the Militia. This organization embraced all white males between 18 and 45. Because of a long period of peace, the Militia was only organized on paper and had no practical existence.
When the Legislature assembled on May l, 1861, it authorized Governor Ellis to raise ten regiments of State Troops before the State Convention met. Under the act, an Adjutant General and other staff officers were provided for to carry out the organization. The regiments were numbered consecutively as they were mustered into State service regardless of branch of service; however, the cavalry and artillery regiments were also numbered consecutively according to their branch. For example, the Ninth Regiment State Troops was also designated the First Cavalry Regiment, and the Tenth Regiment State Troops was designated the First Artillery Regiment.
Under the pre-secession laws of the State, Colonel John F. Hoke was Adjutant General. It was through his office that the Volunteers were organized independent of the ten regiments of State Troops authorized by the Legislature. By July 18, 1861, fourteen Volunteer regiments had been organized and transferred to the Confederate State service. Colonel Hoke resigned his position as Adjutant General after he was elected Colonel of the Thirteenth Regiment Volunteers. General James G. Martin, who had been appointed Adjutant General under the act to organize ten regiments Of State Troops, was ordered by the Governor to take charge of both offices, that of Adjutant General State Troops and Adjutant General Volunteers, until the Legislature met. That body elected General Martin Adjutant General of the State, thus consolidating the two previously independent offices.
When General Martin assumed his new office he found that there were ten regiments of State Troops designated First through Tenth, and fourteen regiments of Volunteers designated First through Fourteenth.
The duplicate set of numbers, First Regiment State Troops through the Tenth Regiment State Troops and the First Regiment Volunteers through the Tenth Regiment Volunteers created confusion in the field, at Richmond, and at Raleigh. The Confederate and State authorities decided that the State Troops should retain their designations of one through ten, while the Volunteer regiments should be redesignated starting with eleven. This was carried out on November 14, 1861, by Special Order, Number 222, Adjutant and Inspector General's Office, Richmond. Thus, the fourteen volunteer regiments were redesignated the Eleventh through the Twenty-Fourth Regiments North Carolina Troops. There was some irregularity about the election of field officers for the Ninth Regiment Volunteers, and their commissions were withheld. Into this vacancy was placed a regiment known as the Second Cavalry that had been organized under the act to organize ten regiments of State Troops. Since there was no Ninth Regiment Volunteers, the Second Cavalry became the Nineteenth Regiment North Carolina Troops. All regiments organized after the redesignation of the Volunteer regiments were numbered consecutively beginning with the Twenty-Fifth Regiment. The first ten regiments were officially designated State Troops," while the old Volunteer regiments, redesignated Eleven through Twenty-Four, were officially designated "North Carolina Troops.". All other regiments were given both designations, (State Troops and North Carolina Troops), without official distinction.
The call for men depleted the ranks of the Militia organizations, leaving only the officers who were exempt to aid in enrolling conscripts. Except for the officers of the Militia, there were no State military organizations until the act to provide a "Guard for Home Defense" was ratified on July 7, 1863. This became known as the Home Guards. All able-bodied men between the ages of 18 and 50, exempt from Confederate service, were enrolled and organized. The officers of the Militia were enrolled in the Home Guard, thus in effect, dissolving the Militia. The Home Guard was organized into a battalion in each county (except in four counties, which furnished only one company each). Regiments were formed in several large counties, and in some cases adjacent counties united to form a regiment. In all, eight regiments were formed.
The Home Guard consisted of two classes, those who were drilled regularly and subject to immediate orders to move to any point of danger within the State, and those who were not required to be drilled and who were only ordered out when their county was invaded.
On February 17, 1864, an act to organize "Reserves" was adopted by the Confederate Congress. A large number of men in the Home Guard were enrolled in the Confederate service. This reduced the Home Guard to such an extent that when ordered out they were consolidated into temporary regiments and were divided into first, second and third class,, Each class was to serve successive tours of duty of about, thirty days each. When each class, was called out it was organized into three regiments, thus making nine regiments of Home Guards.
The law passed by the Confederate Congress on February 17, 1864, placed in the "Reserves" those men between the ages of 17 and 18 and between 45 and 50. The younger age group was called out in April and May, 1864, and by the end of June eight battalions of Junior Reserves were organized. As these battalions were Organized into regimen they were given line-numbers. The First and Sixth Battalions, with two other companies added, were organized into the First Regiment of Reserves (Seventieth North Carolina Regiment).
The Second and Fifth Battalions, with two additional companies, were organized into the Second Regiment of Reserves (Seventy-First North Carolina Regiment). The Fourth, Seventh, and Eighth Battalions were organized into the Third Regiment of Reserves (Seventy-Second North Carolina Regiment).
The words "Junior" and Senior" were not officially used and the first three "Reserve" regiments were designated First, Second, and Third Regiment, or Seventieth, Seventy-First, and Seventy-Second North Carolina. When the men between 45 and 50 were called out, they were organized into regiments designated as the Fourth, Fifth, Sixth, Seventh, and Eighth Regiments of Reserves, or Seventy-Third, Seventy-Fourth, Seventy-Sixth, Seventy-Seventh, and Seventy-Eighth North Carolina. The Seventy-Fifth was the Seventh Cavalry.
Up to this time the only large group of men that had escaped military service were the detailed men. These men were under Confederate jurisdiction and could not be recruited into any State organization. In November, 1864, the Confederate authorities directed that the detailed men in North Carolina be organized into regiments and battalions. Three regiments were organized and designated the First, Second, and Third Regiments Detailed Hen. Their line-numbers were Eighty-First, Eighty-Second, and Eighty-Third North Carolina Regiments.
The first section, "Numerical Designations of Confederate Organizations," is a list of all units up to regimental level, by numerical designation. Each numerical segment is divided according to Cavalry, Artillery, :and Infantry. Within these categories they are listed by battalion and regiment, in that order. In many instances the commanding officers are given along with specific information concerning the organization of the unit. The scarcity of information on State organizations such as Militia and Home Guards is because many of the records were poorly kept, and these that survived were not turned over to the Federal Government in quantity. To facilitate research, each designation which a unit received is entered in its numerical or alphabetical order with cross reference notes.
The second section, "Local Designations of Confederate Units," is a synonym file of companies, battalions, and regiments that served from the State. Most of the companies, enthused with a patriotic spirit, adopted a nick-name, which usually included the name of their town or county. These, however, were supplanted as the war progressed by the use of the commanding officer's name when referring to the unit. The method of numerically designating battalions and regiments was established by the State and Confederate authorities; however, the men in the ranks would generally refer to their company, battalion, or regiment by their commanding officer's name.
Consequently, units in the Southern army were more commonly known by their commanding officer rather than their numerical designation. It should be noted that often after a commanding officer was killed or otherwise unable to retain command, the unit would still be called his company, battalion, or regiment, even though he no longer commanded it. The table herein reproduced is alphabetically arranged, giving the local designation or commanding officer' s name first, followed by the letter designation assigned the company within the regiment it was attached to, plus the numerical designation of the regiment. With regard to battalions and regiments, the local designation or commanding officer's name appears first, followed by the numerical designation.
Brigades and Divisions were organized by the Confederate authorities. In some instances brigades were made up entirely of troops from one state, commanded an officer from that state. To trace the progress of each regiment throughout the war would go beyond the limits set for this work. Consequently, with the exception of Thomas' Legion, we have found it necessary to restrict this work to regimental organizations and below.
The third section, "Union Regiments," is a list of North Carolina regiments who fought for the Union. Loyal Union regiments were often organized before they had a full complement of companies and men. The Third Regiment North Carolina Mounted Infantry was organized in June 1864, even though only one company of the seven that were started was mustered in during that month; five in October 1864; two in February l865 (one of which started enlisting men in June 1864); and two began recruiting and were mustered in March 1865. Most of these units were organized in occupied areas along the coast and in the mountains.
The fourth section, "Military Installations," is an index to camps, posts, and stations, both Union and Confederate, in North Carolina. This list is the most incomplete of the four. Wherever possible the location of the installation has been indicated, and reference made to its location in the Atlas to accompany the Official Records of the Union and Confederate Armies. In addition to the scarcity of information on some of the entries, it must be noted that some of the original cards in this file were lost when transferred to their present location at the National Archives.
To supplement the information herein recorded the researcher is referred to: Histories of the Several Regiments and Battalions from North Carolina in the Great War 1861-1865, edited by Walter Clark; Bethel to Sharpsburg, by Daniel Harvey Hill; and The War of the Rebellion; A Compilation of the Official Records of the Union and Confederate Armies.
Louis H. Manarin
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